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JamesIgnatius27 t1_jd435zd wrote

I read the actual paper.

It achieved complete remission with hematopoietic recovery in 18 of 60 (30%) patients, and remission without hematopoietic recovery (so still likely need a bone marrow transplant) in another 5 of 60 (8%), and "morphological leukemia free state" (leukemia treated, but not cured?) in 9 of 60 (15%). So very positive results in 32 of 60 (53%).

There was no response in 19 of 60 (32%), worsened disease in 7 of 60 (12%), and 2 of 60 (3%) were not reported on.

This drug only works on KMT2Ar and NPM1 variants of leukemia, which make up about 10% and 30% of all leukemias, respectively.

The rate of complete remission for the KMT2Ar is normally 9% with usual treatment, but 33% with the drug in this trial.

The results for survival time were written in a slightly confusing way, but I think the median survival time was 7 months for all patients regardless of remission status. I have no idea why they didn't split up the survival curves between those in remission vs those not in remission.

TLDR: Incremental improvements that might help increase remission rates in some leukemia patients with 2 specific gene mutations comprising 40% of leukemia cases, but it's not a miracle drug.


Llamasxy t1_jd4z0ct wrote

Wow, this is amazing. I fucking hate cancer, it has taken so many loved ones away. This is a huge step in the right direction.


Optimal_Pineapple_41 t1_jd5s9lc wrote

First time I’ve read the “actually looked at the article” top comment and it made me feel hopeful. Not as much as the headline tried, but not as little as I expected.


MCHENIN t1_jd64naj wrote

Never believe the cancer headlines. They are usually one or more of the following:

  1. Hypothetical
  2. Misrepresented
  3. Not yet tested in humans
  4. Years and years away from actual approval

CaptainBegger t1_jd6bgub wrote

Described every post I've seen from r/futurology


tattooedplant t1_jd9doo2 wrote

It’s kind of depressing to read the posts there regarding medical advancements because of that. It’s like “oh this new med seems great even tho it likely won’t come out in the next 15 years!” Then, even after it does, it would be so expensive and practically out of reach for the average person until it goes generic. There are several newer meds I’d love to try, but they are just so expensive for those of us in the US even with insurance.


JamesIgnatius27 t1_jdnbn6y wrote

If it makes you feel any better, the 5-year survival rate for all cancers combined has increased from 50% to 67% in the last 50 years, and there has been significant improvement in every single cancer category (except uterine cancer) which implies that the improved treatments have not been restricted to only a few rich people, but that therapeutic improvements have been more widespread.


2tempt t1_jd6coh2 wrote

they're also always posted here and not r/science


RrtayaTsamsiyu t1_jd6liox wrote

  1. Something reserved for rich people e.g. "Study found people with stress free lives live longer"

corrado33 t1_jd7zoh4 wrote

Cancer is essentially the "final boss" for humans.

If any one human manages to avoid death from other sources for long enough, they will eventually die to cancer just due to how the human body works.

Cancer is basically just "there's something wrong in how your cells are reproducing and the body can't take care of it like it usually does." And all humans reach that point eventually.

It's just very unfortunate that some of us reach it well before others.


Accomplished_Locker t1_jd6fq3a wrote

I started crying. My dad died 31 years ago so I keep up with this stuff. This is such great news moving forward, I hope for a day no one has to lose anyone to at least cancer…


Kingdarkshadow t1_jd7a4aw wrote

My grandpa died 2 months ago with prostate, lung and spinal cord cancer.

News like this agaisnt cancer warm my heart.



Pedantic: KMT2A-R (lysine’s amino acid abbreviation is K, MethylTransferase 2A - Rearranged). For the hematologists and oncologists from a while ago, KMT2a used to be called MLL. Nasty disease.

KMT2a is about 4-5% of acute myeloid leukemia in adults, maybe 20% in kids (but kid AML is rare, their leukemia is mostly ALL, although KMT2a can also be rearranged in ALL, because MLL stood for “mixed lineage leukemia” cause it couldn’t seem to make up its mind which type it was). Sorta don’t think it shakes out to an actual 10%, but if you look at the cases where people do badly it’s enriched.

NPM1 is a common form of AML, 30% seems about right…just for AML. But when you factor in CLL, CML, and other forms of leukemia, it’s not 30% of all leukemias.

TL;DR: this works in a disease where not much works. Percentages are hard when the denominator isn’t made clear, and this is especially true here because there are a lot of leukemia subtypes.


JamesIgnatius27 t1_jd504ov wrote

Thanks. It says in the article 30% of AML for NPM1, I misread it. Also 5-15% of "acute leukemias" for KMT2A rearrangements.



30% for AML seems good.

If you look at the metric of pathologist workflow and number of times we have to present at tumor boards…KMT2a leukemias are often a lotta work. Induction chemo often doesn’t work well. They recur all the time. They can be 20-30% of pediatric ALL that doesn’t respond to CAR-T (cell based therapy seen in the news for dramatic effect and obscene cost). If you could precondition patients with this type of leukemia before CAR-T more might be eligible.

Many of the patients aren’t healthy enough for a haircut either, so any treatment that doesn’t often kill em in the process (marrow transplant) is especially good.


JamesIgnatius27 t1_jd54p2c wrote

I appreciate your knowledge on the subject!

I have a biology PhD but I'm not a cancer specialist by any means. I just try to read the actual science whenever an article like this gets posted to reddit to give a more realistic assessment of the findings.



Reddits lucky to have someone like you summarize this stuff!

You’d get a kick out of KMT2a. The protein is..3700? residues, has a heap of domains, and gets cleaved into two, something like a 320kD and 180kD. The pull-down assays bring down a ton of things where many of the proteins correspond to mutations seen in cancer. Crystal structure was apparently a challenge.


Jesta23 t1_jd65dd2 wrote

I want to add some context to the term complete remission. I was almost killed because of the misunderstanding of it.

In Leukemia, a Complete remission is an outdated metric. Many years ago we had limited ability to detect cancer cells in bone marrow. If you run that test and dont see any cancer cells then it is termed as a complete remission. This sounds wonderful, and many drug companies use this as the basis for their reporting because it makes their drugs look better than they are.

Today, there are tests that can see cancer cells thousands of times better than a complete remission. What we as laymen would call a "complete remission." is actually called MRD negative in leukemia. Any study that does not mention MRD status of the patients is not reporting the full facts and using the term Complete remission as publicity to get investments.

EDIT: since someone pmed me to ask, When I was diagnosed I was given the option of several treatments. The one the doctor wanted me to accept was presented as "99% of patients on this plan have a complete remission in 6months, and it has far less side effects than these other treatments. So obviously I accepted that one. 99% chance of being cancer free? low to no side effects? fuck yeah sign me up doc!

After reading all night I discovered the real terminology in leukemia and found that the treatment I just signed up for had a 99% complete remission rate, but only a 47% MRD negative rate, and a 34% 5 year survivability rate.

While another option had no reported complete remission rate, because its a shitty outdated metric, but had a 88% MRD negative rate, and a 77% 5 year survivability rate.

The option that I was nearly tricked into accepting is far cheaper, and since I had just lost my job (due to being sick.) they were looking to save money.


Yaxoi t1_jd5pxp6 wrote

Blessed be those who read the papers


sigrunrun t1_jd6c3zd wrote

Complete remission without hematopoietic recovery (CRi) means we don’t see leukemia in the bone marrow (<5% blasts) but their blood counts (white blood cells, platelets) are not back to normal due to the chemo side effects. The patient essentially no longer has leukemia so we call it a win. It does not necessarily mean that patients will have to have a bone marrow (stem cell) transplant in order to be “cured.” That is driven by a whole host of other factors not surprisingly is largely risk vs. benefit. Stem cell transplantation is very costly and toxic and many patients can not even find a match.

MLFS essentially means there’s no leukemia in the bone marrow but something still isn’t quite normal in the blood or marrow depending on which definition you use. For example NCCN criteria says that CRi your platelets and white cells are abnormal but your hemoglobin should be normal. If your Hgb is too low then you would be MLFS.

I agree it’s not a miracle drug by any means, but patients who are getting this most likely don’t have any other options so for them even a small percentage of success at prolonging their lives even a few 7 months is worth it. A 53% response rate is VERY good for adult AML - we still don’t really know how to “cure” it.

I hate click bait articles but this is unfortunately what is needed to get people (investors) excited in funding cancer and medical research


Altirix t1_jd6o5ke wrote

Still promising. It's unlikely there will ever be a single miracle drug tbh. Cancer is a collection of diseases.


Hampsterman82 t1_jd6u9lm wrote

shrugs no... Maybe not a miracle but more than tripling the percentage in full remission is a darn good treatment improvement.


MrMunday t1_jd6v06l wrote

Thanks for reading and writing such a precise summary


AdminsHateThinkers t1_jd72b4v wrote

I feel like we're getting close and then the next step will be having to refine it for every individual type.


LooseEndsMkMyAssItch t1_jd82l1k wrote

Making huge strides in the right direction, fyi the goal is to eventually remove Chemo as a need at all. Biologics are making this possible and I cannot wait to see what the future holds.


vintage2019 t1_jd5l2b0 wrote

What’s the baseline recovery rate for people with similar conditions?


bigwill6709 t1_jd66ywp wrote

Just some helpful context here for those reading your comment: this trial was done on patient with relapsed AML (it came back after having gone away) or refractory AML (meaning the cancer never actually got to remission). The standard treatment for relapsed/refractory acute leukemia is a bone marrow transplant, which is pretty toxic (more so than most standard chemo). Success rates of transplant are much better if you can get in remission prior to transplant. So having a drug that can help get people into remission is a big step forward.

Regarding the outcomes mentioned, there are many ways to try and measure if someone is in remission. Morphological remission just means when they looked at the bone marrow under the microscope, they didn’t see leukemia cells. The better measure of remission is MRD (Minimal Residual Disease), which is a test using a different method called flow cytometry that looks at individual cells and the markers they produce to find cancer cells. If MRD is negative, that’s considered better than morphological remission.


Impossible_Garbage_4 t1_jd6agjy wrote

Hey man, 30% full recovery of 40% of leukemia patients ain’t too bad. 12% of all leukemia patients get a cure. Further 3% get a cure with the medicine + a bone marrow transplant. Those are good numbers compared to 0%


TheMetaGamer t1_jd7ciuy wrote

> worsened disease in 7 of 60 (12%)

Does this mean the leukemia worsened or the drug actually worsened the leukemia? They are definitely two different situations. It’s very possible that these people had very aggressive cancers and it slowed them or just had no effect but continued deteriorating.


That_Shrub t1_jd80dyd wrote

Yeah I don't love the misleading headline. And it's a small study, with a relatively small success yield.

But imagine being one of those 18 people -- certainly a miracle drug to them.


captainjackass28 t1_jd4vfbp wrote

Basically a clickbait article. It’s a nice thing to have developed but no cure.


JamesIgnatius27 t1_jd4yli4 wrote

It's always that way.

As a scientist, we work extremely hard only to be undermined by reporters who cause the public to lose faith in scientists.

Scientist: Our clinical trial for a new therapy saw 18 of 60 patients get complete remission. We would have expected about 6 of 60, so this is an improvement.

Clickbait article: New therapy sees cancer VANISH in 18 patients.

Scientist: 😥


Scientist: 😞


captainjackass28 t1_jd4zfzv wrote

Yeah shitty reporting has basically destroyed science especially now that nobody reads beyond a headline. Scientists are the unsung heroes of the modern world.


1pt20oneggigawatts t1_jd5fckl wrote

As a critical thinker, I've seen enough of these articles to be jaded and not take them seriously. If it's real, it will pass shitty internet article and at least get to TV. For instance, the fifth person cured of AIDS in history just recently happened.


IFuckingShitMyPants t1_jd5m7m9 wrote

Wait, really?

How'd they do it? I thought it was terminal


fiendishrabbit t1_jd5rw77 wrote

It's uncurable, but I wouldn't call it terminal. Given that the treatment will reverse AIDS into HIV and where almost all HIV carriers* will die of something entirely unrelated to them being HIV carriers.

*In countries with reliable medical care.


minuteman_d t1_jd4yk37 wrote

It doesn't seem like that - the numbers still seem really good if YOU had that one special type of cancer, it would mean that you had a significantly better chance with this treatment.

I don't think that a cancer cure will come in the form of one treatment for ALL (which would be very nice), but it's going to be attacking specific forms and variations.


Pjpjpjpjpj t1_jd5jkm3 wrote

>It’s a nice thing to have developed but no cure

Narrator: The pill literally cured cancer in 30% of patients.


captainjackass28 t1_jd5utvt wrote

A very specific form of it for people in very specific circumstances. Obviously you didn’t read the article.


Pjpjpjpjpj t1_jd5vzp4 wrote

I read every word of it, and several other write ups on it.

There is no treatment on earth that cures every form of cancer.

Every cancer treatment is for specific types of cancer.

This treatment results in complete remission with no need for bone marrow transplant in 30% of patients. And another chunk of patients have complete remission but still require a transplant. It is a cure for 1/3 of people with this type of cancer.


sas8184 t1_jd3vtk0 wrote

Hope cancer is curable. Fuck cancer


manjmau t1_jd6xwy9 wrote

As lifespan of Humans increases so will cancer. So by curing cancer will be inadvertently even further extend lifespan.


availableonspoofy t1_jd7vcs8 wrote

Interesting that you think our corporate overlords will allow us to increase our lifespans.


corrado33 t1_jd801wi wrote

I mean, we have... significantly, since.... well... all of modern humanity. (Except for a few... rocky times.)


manjmau t1_jd85fts wrote

Their grunt labor needs to be healthy and strong to fabricate their widgets and take them places.


phantom_blade_91 t1_jd7n8xi wrote

I Hope so too…but I’m fearful about the fact that once you see these type of news, you never hear about follow ups of any kind even after a long time.


Mabester t1_jd4k8ue wrote

This class of drugs is called menin inhibitors and they're going to be a game changer for certain subtypes of leukemia. We are seeing resistance to them already however (just recently published in nature)


liberty4u2 t1_jd638a2 wrote

I noted with interest that menin blockers was found to significantly prolong life in rats. That was mentioned in r/longevity not to long ago.


ClassicManeuver t1_jd6fby0 wrote

How are we seeing drug resistance in cancer?


PersonOfInternets t1_jd6ptnz wrote

Cancer is alive...did you not hear? I think trump dropped a deuce in the Denver museum of art that week so it was a little overlooks in the headlines.


redgumdrop t1_jd4zswx wrote

Obligatory - fuck cancer! Hope they'll find cure for all of them and we'll read about it only in textbooks like we read about tuberculosis.


Phatcat15 t1_jd60nvs wrote

It’s crazy my Dad has had Leukemia for 8 or so years now??? Maybe a bit longer? It constantly comes back but he did an experimental treatment at Dana Farber when he was diagnosed and he’s the only 1/300 people still alive. My mom is not doing quite so well with throat cancer - currently on her 2nd round of chemo and it’s really not looking good. It’s pretty adorable watching my leukemia dad take care of my cancer mom… but damn the big C can go suck a bag of dicks.

Watched the Fungi documentary on Netflix recently - was amazed to hear that there are some mushrooms out there that can fight back against cancer - or more accurately - amplify your defenses exponentially.


Pixielo t1_jd6255u wrote

I'm sorry that this is happening to your family, and I wish you peace, and strength.

Fuck cancer.


Phatcat15 t1_jd6403w wrote

Thanks friend… it’s kind of been a big fuck you from life lately but we have lots of family support and doing our best. I just pray it’s not the one two punch that happens sometimes when married couples lose a partner and the other follows shortly after. It’s going to be a rough time either way but there are so many people that have to deal with this - I’m just lucky I’m 38 and I’ve had them in my life that whole time.


skyysdalmt t1_jd65ue4 wrote

You have one more internet stranger hoping the best for your family.


itsgabrielsimao t1_jd6ardt wrote

Technically cancer is your own body fighting against itself.


[deleted] t1_jd6blz9 wrote



itsgabrielsimao t1_jd6ckbu wrote

Not invalidating whatever you said. Enhancing the body’s ability to defend itself against cancer cells is a great way to fight it.


Phatcat15 t1_jd6ij38 wrote

Fair enough - seemed abrasive without the additional context. I take back what I said.


MrLinderman t1_jd865ev wrote

Glad to hear your dad is doing well! I probably worked on that trial and with his doctor. The leuk docs at DFCI are the Babe Ruths of leukemia.

Any chance you remember what the treatment was?


LadyMirkwood t1_jd5mft0 wrote

Lost my dad to CML when I was 4. I'm 40 now and am always heartened when they make progress with a cure.


PocketDeuces t1_jd66sjb wrote

I'm sorry to hear about your father, that's awful.

I've been living with CML since 2007. Today there's are a number of treatments that basically didn't exist before 1999. The breakthrough drug is called Gleevec, and now there are several generations of treatments beyond that. I feel lucky to have been diagnosed when I was. A decade earlier and I there's a good chance I wouldn't be here today.


xaogypsie t1_jd6brd8 wrote

CML also here, since 2005. I relapsed on gleevec about 13 years ago, but I've been doing pretty well on Sprycel. Glad to hear you are doing well.


PocketDeuces t1_jd6bxau wrote

Thanks! Glad to hear you're doing well too! Watch out for that PE!


xaogypsie t1_jd6ddyd wrote

Yeah, I had pleural effusion about two years ago. It went away after stopping and then resuming at a lower dose. Absolutely sucked, especially with the pandemic in full swing (not a good time to have your lungs compromised). Thankfully, I'm in the clear for now.


LadyMirkwood t1_jd79x7m wrote

Thank you. I'm so glad there have been advances, options for my dad were so limited.

And I'm also so happy that you and other people with CML are doing so much better now x


Harpertoo t1_jd6culx wrote

I was diagnosed 2 years ago with CML at age 28. Every day when I take my tasigna I try to appreciate how much of a miracle TKIs are. I'm alive partly because of your father. ❤️


badusernameused t1_jd5y5hj wrote

Won’t it be a amazing fucking day when an article is published saying there is now a vaccine or pill to stop cancer completely and it actually be completely true? Keep at it people, every breakthrough is a step in the right direction.


PersonOfInternets t1_jd6q19f wrote

Let's not forget cancer prevention is still real. That's where we've made most of our progress unfortunately, proving that exercise, diet, and lifestyle are everything to decrease your odds.


mezcalmolotov t1_jd7v0an wrote

There's already a lung cancer vaccine in Cuba but we can't stop pearl-clutching about "cOmMuNIsM" so we are left without


discgman t1_jd4eukd wrote

Only 2 million dollars a pill


theangryburrito t1_jd4iefd wrote

Hey my sprycel is only 12k a month.


PocketDeuces t1_jd66xaw wrote

I was on sprycel as well for a couple years. Made it to treatment free remission after a scary pleural effusion. How's it treating you?


theangryburrito t1_jd6a5eq wrote

So far so good. I am getting for AML after chemo which seems to be a fairly newish use for it. I have been on it for 6 months and will stay on it for 6 more. Compared to the chemo, Sprycel ain’t bad at all.

Congrats on your remission.


PocketDeuces t1_jd6ajcp wrote

Glad to hear that. I didn't know that they give sprycel for AML. I have CML, and it's a common treatment for that.

Watch out for pleural effusion. If you have any trouble breathing, let your doctor know asap. Often times a 50mg dose works as well as 100, but without as many side effects.


1jdog1 t1_jd6cw07 wrote

Do you not have insurance? My copay for Sprycel was 3k a bottle. But there was manufacturers assistance that brought it down to nothing.


theangryburrito t1_jd6i6s3 wrote

I do, I was just giving the list price. I am very fortunate and pay $15/month out of pocket.


1jdog1 t1_jd6lg4o wrote

Oh OK that seems much more reasonable


Emotional_Parsnip_69 t1_jd4rog3 wrote

Are they telling us because we will never get the pill because it will cost too much or because something much much worse is coming?


working-acct t1_jd6tl4r wrote

It costs so much bc someone’s gotta pay for the research and it’s a small group. Once this treatment gets approved worldwide you’ll start seeing costs go down drastically.


Emotional_Parsnip_69 t1_jd4rux4 wrote

I wanna believe in just pure good but man capitalism wrecks it so I gotta be happy but not too happy so they don’t make every researcher making this disappear


kleatus t1_jd7tvho wrote

You are being down voted, but you are not completely wrong....


Emotional_Parsnip_69 t1_jd7uy1s wrote

Given the history of these things, I didn’t think what I said was that out there. Oh well, happens


[deleted] t1_jd3ot7g wrote



Alcoraiden t1_jd3u6oc wrote

Violating the rules. Don't talk shit about nice things.


wilbersk t1_jd3smp4 wrote

It’s in Europe, so there’s at least a chance it doesn’t get buried by the for profit American “healthcare” machine


HypeIncarnate t1_jd49ibs wrote

well it won't be in Europe, but when the pill gets here it 100% will not be affordable.


thomodachi t1_jd4nm2t wrote

So Kyedae has a good chance of surviving this


Developprumbo t1_jd633vm wrote

I know cancer will be cured one day I just hope it will be sooner than later. Glad to see we are making progress ;)


Marzonick_141 t1_jd6x38a wrote

Once researched and developed, how much are they going to inflate the price of the this pill? Big Pharma is about to gain another trillion, all while the people who need it go on generational debt to pay off medical bills. I'd rather die than pass down debt to my children. A more heroic act than finding the cure for cancer and charing an impossible bill to pay in one lifetime.


robexib t1_jd7scww wrote

Cancer deletion in a pill.

Goddamn I love modern medicine


Exact-Permission5319 t1_jd4ugft wrote

Hopefully we can make this prohibitively expensive so the treatment actually helps as few people as possible. The real promise of this medicine is that insurance companies will make a ton of profit from this.


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davideo71 t1_jd5akvk wrote

I thought it would be super rude to promise a leukemia patient a pill, but now that I know promising pills actually works I might do it!


Key_Culture2790 t1_jd5csi8 wrote

I swear on my life we've already cured cancer like 500 times already


PocketDeuces t1_jd678yq wrote

Seems that way because every one of these articles is about a different kind of cancer. Even leukemia has 4 main types with a bunch of variations underneath. Every breakthrough is for a very specific type of cancer. There's no one size fits all "cure for cancer" and I suspect there never will be.


Bluesodium t1_jd5gsdv wrote

Will be insanely expensive and not able to obtain.


raspberrycleome t1_jd5izrr wrote

i used to find this uplifting. then i realized all of these treatments are affordable for normal people. sorry.


LakeEffectEffect t1_jd5lmqn wrote

This is the important stuff. Great news, hope to hear more of it.


ryanblumenow t1_jd5vc32 wrote

How many steps in the right direction of completely treating it in other types as well have we taken with this? I am not a medical professional but this sounds promising.

Would it work in other animals too?


Didyoufartjustthere t1_jd60cs1 wrote

And nothing will come of it as usual


everything-man t1_jd8jjd3 wrote

Every comment like this is getting a down vote. Unfortunately, it's true. The cure will either go missing along with the inventor, just like that movie, or the patent will cause it to be so expensive, for most people might as well be gone. Same difference. Dead people. Money prevails in America.


Didyoufartjustthere t1_jd8k1mr wrote

Exactly. Constantly reading these and nothing ever comes of it. Leukaemia is now rampant amongst children. It could be bad luck but in my childs school it’s 1 in every 200 children.


Legitimate-Space8847 t1_jd6aqb4 wrote

What company’s drug is this? There was no mention of the name of the company that discovered the drug?


bigboxes1 t1_jd6avrs wrote

Time to block another karma farmer


BlazingDropBear t1_jd6rei2 wrote

Just waiting for it to magically disappear now.....


writerfan2013 t1_jd8tyxk wrote

Amazing. Hoping it's approved for use on the NHS


Signal-Pen-9570 t1_jdc75an wrote

We keep hearing lately about all sorts of promising discoveries against cancers. The future is looking good! In a sea of negative news, this is a drop of positivity! Yeey!


zavatone t1_jd5iiu3 wrote

> All Negative comments will be removed and will possibly result in a ban.

This comment consists entirely of electrons.


cmill007 t1_jd5vy51 wrote

Excellent. Soon to be USD $100,000. Per pill.


UltimateDonny t1_jd61qr0 wrote

1 pill saves 18 patients.


corrado33 t1_jd80bv3 wrote

They all take turns licking the communal pill.

Alternatively, and much more morbidly, they're all sewn together like a human centipede.


emagdnim_edud t1_jd63rfw wrote

Let me guess - Hopes and prayers...?


itsgabrielsimao t1_jd6anwn wrote

Given the current state of medicine in general and oncology itself, I would not doubt this is possible. Everyday pretty much there are new treatments becoming available and a ton of data is being collected to improve the current state of things.


derpy9678 t1_jd5el3x wrote

Dont worry, whoever invented it will disappear, along with every trace this wonder drug ever existed at all


[deleted] t1_jd4x6m2 wrote

With that cancer out of the way it should be much easier to treat their leukaemia.