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basmwklz OP t1_j6qziw7 wrote

Abstract: >Years of use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has long been associated with the risk of vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Accumulating evidence has shown that metformin may exert beneficial effects by altering the metabolism of the gut microbiota, but whether it induces human B12 deficiency via modulation of bacterial activity remains poorly understood. Here, we show that both metformin and the other biguanide drug phenformin markedly elevate the accumulation of B12 in E. coli. By functional and genomic analysis, we demonstrate that both biguanides can significantly increase the expression of B12 transporter genes, and depletions of vital ones, such as tonB, nearly completely abolish the drugs’ effect on bacterial B12 accumulation. Via high-throughput screens in E. coli and C. elegans, we reveal that the TetR-type transcription factor RcdA is required for biguanide-mediated promotion of B12 accumulation and the expressions of B12 transporter genes in bacteria. Together, our study unveils that the antidiabetic drug metformin helps bacteria gather B12 from the environment by increasing the expressions of B12 transporter genes in an RcdA-dependent manner, which may theoretically reduce the B12 supply to T2D patients taking the drug over time.