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basmwklz OP t1_j87oao6 wrote

Abstract: >This study aims to investigate how metformin (Met) affects muscle tissue by evaluating the drug effects on proliferating, differentiating, and differentiated C2C12 cells. Moreover, we also investigated the role of 5’-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the mechanism of action of Met. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in growth medium with or without Met (250μM, 1mM and 10mM) for different times. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, while cell toxicity was assessed by Trypan Blue exclusion test and Lactate Dehydrogenase release. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting analysis was performed to study cell cycle. Differentiating myoblasts were incubated in differentiation medium (DM) with or without 10mM Met. For experiments on myotubes, C2C12 were induced to differentiate in DM, and then treated with Met at scalar concentrations and for different times. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the expression of proteins involved in myoblast differentiation, muscle function and metabolism. In differentiating C2C12, Met inhibited cell differentiation, arrested cell cycle progression in G2/M phase and reduced the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1. These effects were accompanied by activation of AMPK and modulation of the myogenic regulatory factors. Comparable results were obtained in myotubes. The use of Compound C, a specific inhibitor of AMPK, counteracted the above-mentioned Met effects. We reported that Met inhibits C2C12 differentiation probably by blocking cell-cycle progression and preventing cells permanent exit from cell-cycle. Moreover, our study provides solid evidence that most of the effects of Met on myoblasts and myotubes are mediated by AMPK.


8496469 t1_j87pfy3 wrote

C2C12 is an immortalized mouse myoblast cell line. The C2C12 cell line is a subclone of myoblasts that were originally obtained by Yaffe and Saxel at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel in 1977.[1] Developed for in vitro studies of myoblasts isolated from the complex interactions of in vivo conditions, C2C12 cells are useful in biomedical research.[2] These cells are capable of rapid proliferation under high serum conditions and differentiation into myotubes under low serum conditions. Mononucleated myoblasts can later fuse to form multinucleated myotubes under low serum conditions or starvation, leading to the precursors of contractile skeletal muscle cells in the process of myogenesis.[3] C2C12 cells are used to study the differentiation of myoblasts, osteoblasts, and myogenesis, to express various target proteins, and to explore mechanistic biochemical pathways.