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wealhtheow t1_jbdc2w5 wrote

There's a paragraph of Methods on how they chose to deal with those: Confounding factors Age in years and smoking in three categories (never, past and current smokers) were assessed. Total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) were measured by the automated enzymatic technique. We assessed dyslipidemia by total/HDL cholesterol ratio which was proven the best predictor of future atherosclerosis.30 Diabetes was ascertained by medical record review. Subjects were considered to have diabetes if documented diagnoses were in the medical records or if they were being treated for diabetes. To avoid confounding by affluence and high socioeconomic status, we adjusted educational levels, income and private insurance status.


ApricatingInAccismus t1_jberqev wrote

The most obvious confounder, though, would be that someone who has the discipline to develop lifelong habits of oral hygiene very likely also has the discipline to develop lifelong healthier habits of nutrition and exercise (which are strongly associated with cvd).