BloodshotPizzaBox t1_jdhwv4s wrote

When the appendix gets surgically removed, it's typically because it's in the process of dying and trying to take the patient out with it. So its usefulness has already ended at that point.

There are cases of appendicitis that are treatable with antibiotics, but in general it tends to come on too quickly and severely for that.


BloodshotPizzaBox t1_jctm11i wrote

I assume that a big factor here is that the nitrogen in the air isn't "freely available" in the same sense that it is in nitrates in the soil. It's stuck to other nitrogen atoms, and N2 has a huge bond energy compared to the nitrogen-hydrogen bond in stuff like ammonium ions.(To digress, the fact that nitrogen atoms so desperately wants to bond with other nitrogen atoms is what makes nitrates so reactive in things like explosives. The formation of N2 releasing a lot of energy is the flip side of breaking N2 requiring a lot of energy.)

As to the reason why plants need nitrogen (the element as opposed to the gas) in the first place: it's a major component of chlorophyll. I mean, probably other reasons, but definitely that one.


BloodshotPizzaBox t1_jardv0o wrote

You seem to be thinking of "the genetic mutation" as something separate from the cancerous cells. It's not.

That is, the genetic mutation that causes cancer isn't something that's expressed in your whole body that makes cancerous cells, it's something that happens in one cell that then divides uncontrollably (if the immune system doesn't eliminate is as foreign soon enough).


BloodshotPizzaBox t1_j7h8kq6 wrote

I realize "Sue" and "zoo" with slightly different tongue placement (the "s" is just a bit more fronted), which might or might not be distinguishable to a listener. I'd be more convinced if I tested it on someone who had to guess which one I meant without me telling them which I intended, and absent any surrounding context.


BloodshotPizzaBox t1_iyi8te9 wrote

I know this isn't what you meant by the question, but since the vast majority of the universe (not counting dark matter, whatever that is) is made of stars that are mostly hydrogen and helium, basically everything on Earth is very rare compared to the universe in general. So, that's pretty cool.


BloodshotPizzaBox t1_isestgj wrote

There are many depth cues other than binocular parallax, so people with one eye can still judge depth, just not as well.

Examples of monocular depth cues include:

Relative size, or absolute size of familiar objects: the farther away something is, the smaller it appears, and this can be used to either compare similar objects that appear different sizes, or to judge the distance of an object whose size is familiar.

Texture gradient: basically, this is relative size applied to the fine detail of texture. Imagine a gravel road, for example; its apparent texture becomes finer the farther away you go.

Motion parallax: things moving at familiar speeds have slower apparent motion the farther away they are. Or, when you are moving, things farther away from you have slower apparent motion.

Overlap: closer objects obscure farther ones.

Elevation to the horizon: things farther away tend to be nearer the horizon.

Accommodation: Your eye changes shape via muscular action in order to focus on objects, and the shape depends on the distance to the object.