Boring_Ad_3065 t1_jcfy5hn wrote

> Researchers found that families with one child spend 27% more on the only child. Families with three or more children spend 24% less on each child.

Anecdotally kids from larger families I knew growing up often had older children support parenting duties, such as covering for an hour or two between school and work, or driving siblings to school once they got their license.


Boring_Ad_3065 t1_j848s2e wrote

I mean…

Chimps get money, invent prostitution

Engaged in a 4 year tribal war

Like much of evolution, it repurposes and adds on, it doesn’t often reinvent. There’s debate around Dunbar’s number, but some agreement that a lot of us can manage about 50 active personal connections (albeit with high variability). The fact that we added in religion, culture, nations are more meta-evolutions of society (largely enabled by language and written language), not necessarily saying we’ve adapted our brains significantly from 10,000 years ago, but that social structures enabling mass cooperation were generally advantageous for production and competition.


Boring_Ad_3065 t1_j584zql wrote

I’d need more context on why you think humans aren’t genetically diverse, or what species you think are more so.

Again, viruses are so simple they aren’t even considered to meet all criteria for being alive. They’re in someways more like molecular machines, and are 100-1000 times smaller than a human cell in a single dimension. Cells are 3D, so ^3 them and it’s a million to a billion times less volume. At that level they (and to an extent bacteria) can swap DNA/RNA accidentally with completely unrelated organisms. Viruses are so “good” at this that all species have “junk DNA” that appears to be the virus inserting part of its DNA into ours and getting replicated (some junk DNA may play an important role we haven’t figured out).

I say this with caution - the vast majority of these swaps are completely fatal, or are worse than the original and don’t survive long. However each infection (one not quickly squashed by the immune system) creates many many billions of viruses in a human (this is likely approximately scalable by body mass).

Humans as a species with a very plentiful population are pretty genetically diverse. We’re actually arguably more diverse over time as civilization broadly allows survival of otherwise less optimal people. For example I’ve got a pretty decent brain on me, but I’ve had very poor eyesight from an early age, and while a healthy adult was sick pretty often as a kid. It’s very possible I’d have died or been destitute if I was born even a few hundred years ago.

And you can actually see this evolutionary selection in earlier humans. Humans everywhere adapted more to their environment the harsher and earlier it was.

  • Skin color: melanin is a defense against UV radiation, which is more intense the closer to the equator you are. Conversely it limits natural vitamin D production, which skin produces from UV exposure.
  • Immunity: the Black Death killed something like 20-30% of Europe’s population. There are certain diseases that Europeans have higher likelihood of resistance than average
  • Persistent Lactase: Europeans had access to more domesticated animals that produced milk, and are the least lactose intolerant group.
  • Altitude: natives to the Andes in SA have far better tolerance to thinner air at 1-2 miles above sea level.
  • Malaria: Africans with great malaria exposure, are at much higher risk of sickle cell anemia, because carrying only 1 copy of the gene produces significant resistance to malaria.

Bottom line is that humans are pretty diverse, and in any case it’s hard to compare genetic diversity of complex species to single celled (or zero celled) organisms.


Boring_Ad_3065 t1_j4wxbyf wrote

Adding on to this, some viruses are really good at jumping species. Influenza is one example, hence why you hear of swine flu and avian flu, but different variants can infect seals, cattle, dogs, horses, etc. It doesn’t help that humans raise billions of pigs and chickens for food that are kept in very close, not great conditions, so there are many opportunities to interact with large populations of sick animals. The fear of spreading is why you hear of culls of millions of animals sometimes. This also happened with minks and COVID.

HIV descended from SIV, and was most plausibly introduced to humans when a hunter was harvesting bushmeat, a bloody process, and cut themselves.

It’s important to note that just because viruses can cross species, they can be more or less deadly and transmissible. Typically early versions of viruses aren’t well adapted to new hosts. COVID is likely harmless in bats (who carry many viruses), and clearly deadly in humans, while being poorly adapted to dogs. For COVID, this is due primarily with how our respective ACE receptors are. Additionally even within roughly similar viruses there’s variance. MERS, another coronavirus carried by camels is much deadlier than COVID at ~37% of cases but thankfully far, far harder to transmit.

Finally it’s not all bad for humans. We eradicated smallpox in part because someone noticed that milkmaids were practically immune to it. Cowpox is similar enough that it conferred strong immunity to smallpox, while being much more mild.

A caveat - evolution in general, but for viruses in particular doesn’t “seek” anything. Viruses don’t even meet all typical criteria for being alive, and their evolution is purely a numbers game, with a single infection generating upwards of trillions of viruses, and then “hoping” it comes in contact with another suitable host. Viruses are also messy, and some can share genes very readily. Influenza is a prime example.


Boring_Ad_3065 t1_j2f8j2k wrote

It’s mostly the physical element to verify the user. For CAC/PIV, it’s an ID badge that also has RFID that some buildings use for building/room accesses, so basically IT security + corporate badge in one.

The RSA fobs are at least as secure, I assume, based on how I’ve seen both used.


Boring_Ad_3065 t1_j2f7rwd wrote

You still type a PIN in for a CAC / PIV. The readers used to come standard on many laptops (the card was inserted and stuck out a bit over a centimeter, barely noticeable) Now they’re a $10-20 accessory, not terribly pricy but annoying if you move a lot with your laptop.

As far as token fobs with OTP, it depends. The RSA hack affected all customers and allowed the hackers to generate the OTPs. Not sure about the two Okta breaches, but there’s only a handful of providers (though MS, Google, and others all have their own), so a breach in one can affect hundreds of companies/services.


Boring_Ad_3065 t1_j25tnfz wrote

Yes, and they’ve been consistently pushing up against it. The smallest features on these chips are literally atoms wide and at a point where electrons can jump across them, requiring very creative materials and use of more 3d-like layers. Getting “light” wavelengths small enough is also an issue and it took a long time to get the last upgrade working.


Boring_Ad_3065 t1_ivvn53z wrote

You probably could, but I’m certain it’s more difficult and more expensive. I’m also guessing heavy snowfall or rain messes with a lot of the sensors. Guessing it’ll be years before they work out those scenarios most of the time.