EmilyU1F984 t1_jbiez6f wrote

Do you want to see something interesting? Check out the Indian Muntjac:

The X fragment is always fused to the autosome, while the Y chromosome stays unfused. So 2n is 6 in females and 7 in males.

Their close relative the Chinese muntjac has 2n=46

And they can interbreed with sterile offspring.

Like an n=3 gamete can fuse with an n=23 gametes and it ‚works‘

They both come from n=70 ancestral deer.

The Indian one just went let’s fuse all the chromosomes.



EmilyU1F984 t1_jbiep5a wrote

This is true, but it is too simplified.

You can easily have differing 2n in even mammals. All it requires is fusion of only the X fragment but not the Y chromosome.

See the Indian muntjac: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/cytologia/70/1/70_1_71/_pdf 2n=6/7

Which funnily enough can actually breed with the Chinese 2n=46

Additionally plenty of chromosomes do weird fusion and duplication stuff, meaning you can actually have specific chromosomes that can be dropped with no I’ll effect.

There‘s also insects with males having a single chromosome less than the females.

But that should only possible with ZW/ZZ insects, and not our XX/XY relatives.

And it’s always the case for insects completely lacking Y chromosomes. Take for example stick insects. The females have XX chromosomes the males just have X0 chromosomes.

Like they lack the second sex chromosome in regular existence.

But really as I said: if you have chromosomes that can be dropped wirh no Ill effect, uneven is possible.

And since males are the genetically inferior variant of the ancestral asexual progenitors, usually it‘s the males that will have uneven chromosomes, because their Y chromosome can in many cases do whatever and still leave a fully viable animal.


EmilyU1F984 t1_jbie16i wrote

It‘s the Y chromosome in Indian muntjacs that‘s added on.

Or rather the Y chromosome doubled at some point, with one of them becoming a non sex determining variant.

Since a ‚functioning‘ Y chromosome that determines sex only actually needs a single gene to switch from the normal female type to the male type; it can get pretty wonky without much trouble.

I‘d assume in other species it‘s the same.

Also the X chromosomes in Indian muntjacs is stuck into a different chromosome.

So the female muntjac has two ‚regular‘ chromosome pair, one pair with a tiny X portion stuck to the two tops. While the male muntjac has the same two regular pairs; and then the next pair has the X portion only stuck to a single one in the pair, and the Y being a tiny additional chromosome.

So really, the males have a higher number of chromosomes because their Y chromosome is free floating and doesn‘t ‚attach‘ to the spot where the second X would go in females

As single X chromosome individuals are perfectly viable in virtually all species, it seems the Y chromosome can really do whatever it wants and things will still work.

Btw the Chinese muntjac has 46 chromosomes and can interbreed with the Indian muntjac with 6/7 chromosomes.

And the change from the 46 variant to the 6/7 one is pretty recent.

Like they have the same number of genes. They just Stuck all those 46 chromosomes together in a very chaotic way for some reason.

While staying perfectly healthy throughout.


For the chromosomes.

Since the Y chromosome is the ‚inferior‘ variant of the X chromosome, I.e. it carries virtually zero essential genetic information, because only XX individuals are ‚whole‘; it is much more free to just ‚be‘ and still work.

It really only needs the SRY gene and it‘ll work.


EmilyU1F984 t1_ja9ovus wrote

No specific ones probably. The problem is taking contaminated recycled plastic and trying to make fuel that‘s actually safe to combust.

Shit ton of work went into refining gasoline, and plastics of various kinds will introduce elements that aren‘t present in oil in the first place.

Take PVC being in the recycled plastic, now you got hydrocarbons with chlorine as the end product.


EmilyU1F984 t1_j9t8zcs wrote

It’s relevant but not the whole explanation, also all organic molecules get their colour from those conjugated double bonds, whether they are blue yellow or red doesn‘t matter.

It‘s just that yellow requires the lowest amount of bonds, so any break down products are likely have enough bonds to go from only absorbs UV to also absorbs blue.

In urine the natural healthy colour is made from the molecule that oxygen is transported around in your body.

It’s gets broken down to smaller bits, shorter conjugated electron systems hence yellowish colour.

Additionally: the way our body metabolizes random molecules, like pigments in plant food etc, is by oxidizing them into more water solubles derivatives.

This oxidation is usually pretty efficient at double bonds (which make conjugated systems) And if your body breaks the double bond in the middle of a conjugated system, you usually end up with something that doesn’t have a large enough conjugated system to even absorb blue. So it appears colorless.

Take the imine in your example: break that, and you end up with just a benzene ring, which is colorless.

That‘s why foods and other colorful substances rarely dye the urine.


EmilyU1F984 t1_j83abzg wrote

Which would depend on your specific protein, and prions aren‘t that specific.

Sure globulins will be gone and other unstable protein, but since you didn‘t mention the protein.

Can just pasteurise in an autoclave as well.

No need to do 121C if you aren’t going for medical sterility. Most stuff does way earlier.

Well phosphate and protease resistant protein don‘t make up a very good growth mediums

So not much risk of colonies forming anyway.

Though got any further attempts you got stuff like propylenglykol or regular preservatives available. No use to go toxic.

Could even just use thiomersal if you still got some lying around.

But sorbic acid if acidic or parabenes if neutral to whatever if basic. That stuff works for creams that people touch daily just fine to prevent growth.

Other way round, find someone with an x ray in a lab and just use that.


EmilyU1F984 t1_j81ib1n wrote

Why not just heat sterilize it? If you do that in a pressure vessel the pressure inside your jewelry and surrounding it will be the same, and it thus won’t explode.

Also is there anything in there but the protein? Even if you introduced something, stuff won‘t be able to grow on just a single protease resistant protein snywsy.

Not like it‘s meant to be used for injection. Just needs to not go opaque right?


EmilyU1F984 t1_j7odx3x wrote

They didn’t stop the trials mate.

Viagra was brought to market first for Pulmobary Hypertension, and is still on the market for that indication.

After release reports showed massive benefit in ED, this approval for that second indication was obtained.

It is still the major treatment option for pulmonary hypertension an otherwise very quickly lethal disease and now progression can be delayed by decades at best.


EmilyU1F984 t1_j6gmkg4 wrote

Those UV leds are cheap 400nm ones. That could be considered visible light. I mean it IS visible light.

You can cure the nail polish in the same 120 seconds by going out around noon in summer.

Soo unless you are avoiding the summer sun that much; LEDs won‘t make a difference.

The problem isn‘t UV LEDs it’s using 50W UV lamps where all of that energy is in the UV spectrum.

Rather than an LED lamp running on a 5V 2A USB supply..


EmilyU1F984 t1_j4kqypw wrote

You need to get your antibody titer checked.

There’s no other way to check whether a vaccination worked in causing immunity, and no other way to tell whether you still have sufficient immunity.

In most cases a fresh vaccine course will yield sufficient protection against infection.

Also: the bats do need to bite you. Any other contact doesn‘t risk infection.

If bitten depending on your local health care system they will either determine tigers to see whether you have sufficient immunity, or do a refresher course of the vaccination, with or without immunoglobulin depending on further circumstances (immunocompromised, vaccination a decade old etc)


EmilyU1F984 t1_j4528z0 wrote

Nah, that‘s crap.

Insulin is a group of hormones. Not any specific molecule.

Epinephrine is a specific molecule.

There cannot physically be any immune problems, assuming it is pure, and any reaction would not be to the epinephrine but contaminants.

Insulin however is all peptides that work on insulin receptors in their specific animals.

Bovine insulin is physically different to human insulins. Three amino acids are completely different of the 51 that make up insulin.

And thus with bad luck, the immune system can detect it as foreign.

If you genetically engineered a cow to produce human insulin; the extracted insulin would not cause allergic reactions if sufficiently purified.

Class of drugs and specific molecules are the important point here.


EmilyU1F984 t1_j451u2q wrote

Epinephrine is a small molecule. It doesn‘t matter where you get it from. If it is pure it is identical.

Doesn‘t matter what animal, planet or universe you get it from.

Insulin for example is different, because that‘s just a class of peptide hormones, not a specific one. Meaning human insulin is slightly different from say a pigs insulin. It still works the same on insulin receptors, but it‘s different enough that sometimes your immunesystem might go ‚wsit, this doesn‘t look right, let’s destroy it‘.

But you can also make human insulin through genetic engineering from E. coli bacteria or yeast, that molecule will be identical to the insulin your body produces.

Just modern insulins are modified more heavily, cause actual human insulin only works well if it’s secreted continuously at the correct levels. And not just once you eat food/measure your sugar levels.


EmilyU1F984 t1_j30tpd5 wrote

Yea exactly, bank robberies have massively dropped.

Don‘t think you’d even be able to walk out with 5 digit figures at a random German bank, unless you go for the major cash handling ones… which have the appropriate security anyway.

Also that cash is also not in the open. Deposits get dropped in a safe, the safe cannot just be accessed by the random clerks working.

So you either have to call in a withdrawal to make them have cash on hand, or rob them exactly when some business is depositing their weekly cash proceedings..

And that‘s in Germany, which is still massive on cash compared to virtually all our neighbours.

But really, bank robberies were hardly worth it when you could get away with 6 figures. They definetely aren’t worth it now.

You‘ll do better just robbing any random store used by the elderly and taking the 1k they‘ll have in their till in the late afternoon I reckon.

Plus much more crime is credit card/fraud based. Much lower risk, much lower punishments.

To just rob a random small town bank, you’d have to be extreeeeemely desperate and dumb.


EmilyU1F984 t1_j2fra5g wrote

Nah. They know porn. But peer to peer education is massively lacking in getting across facts.

They really do not know how pregnancy happens. They believe all the old wives tales about preventing pregnancy.

These are the people doing coke douches cause some other idiot told them, instead of getting plan b


EmilyU1F984 t1_j2fjgpp wrote

In ppm ranges, making them completely ineffective.

Methylgyoxal is utter marketing mumbo jumbo for alternative medicine shills.

Not to mention, even at antibacterial concentrations, neither hydrogen peroxide nor MGO would have any effect at all abhobt cold like symptoms.


EmilyU1F984 t1_j1klmip wrote

This is wrong. Try it yourself. Fully blocked nose. Eat a teaspoon or horseradish, wasabi, whatever. You will be able to suddenly breathe through your running nose for 20 minutes.

Why on earth wouldn‘t the irritants in horseradish not be active chemicals either? There isn‘t some kind of magical knowledge the body has


EmilyU1F984 t1_izkkfip wrote

You get liquid? Only ones we can safely get is Tablets in my part of Germany. Liquid formulations are on Backorder..

Not that I’d personally mind compounding those Tablets into a suspension ifneed be… but being a retail pharmacy… those prescriptions are virtually never for a confirmed bacterial infection, but rather ‚if things get worse‘

Like wtf if things get worse, you hand the prescription to the parents and have it picked up/delivered by the pharmacy. Don‘t have patients keep out of stock antibiotics at home -.-


EmilyU1F984 t1_izi5r6r wrote

It depends. A salt water tank away from the ocean is very unlikely to find accidental contamination from you, your home, etc that‘s compatible with it.

Cause it would be fresh water species you‘d be introducing through unwashed hands etc.

But: it used to be that virtually anything to do with salt water tanks was wild caught/collected. So any time you bought a new thing for your tank, there was a massive risk of contamination.

While fresh water stuff was usually bred in captivity, with much more focus on keeping the tanks clean. Don‘t want your breeding fish/shrimp etc to just die.

So new fish were likely far removed from the wild, and only carrying the more common parasites of captivity.

Rather than introducing lethal bacteria etc that were freshly picked up from the sea.

Since there‘s also much more salt water breeding now, the risk has kinda gone down.

Plus massive operations can test for viral/bacterial DNA in their tanks and quarantine stuff.

But it you were to just take water from a random pond or a random tide pool, the risk of introducing something bad would be about the same on average.

But any random fresh water bacteria/viruses etc likely wouldn‘t survive the halinity of a salt water tank. So a ‚seperated from sea‘ salt water tank would be harder to accidentally contaminate by using say rain water from your backyard tank.