GeoGeoGeoGeo OP t1_jdm0dou wrote

It will never violently flip, that's just not how reversals or excursions occur. Reversals typically take anywhere between 4 and 9 thousand years to flip with the latest reversal taking 22 thousand years to reverse:

The magnetic pole wanders all the time. It's the intensity via gradual weakening that indicates an excursion or reversal.


GeoGeoGeoGeo OP t1_jdlyu56 wrote


Over what duration of time? It's currently reducing in strength which has been interpreted by some as to be a reduction in strength from an anomalous high back to a more typical strength. Meanwhile there have also been long intervals of time with no reversals. These are known as superchrons, such as the cretaceous normal superchron which was an episode of stable polarity with little or no reversals lasting upwards of 37 million years. So long as the mantle and outter core keep thermally / chemicaly convecting we should expect the Earth's geodynamo to operate. This includes the possibility of excursions and reversals.


GeoGeoGeoGeo OP t1_jdk3edx wrote

He's not. He was a teaching assistant during his time at university and is currently with the Swiss Seismological Service (SED) at ETH Zurich (a federal agency).

Your questions seem quite out of place here and with little to no bearing with regard to the information presented within the article.


GeoGeoGeoGeo OP t1_jdk0cvo wrote

Ryan Schultz is an academic researcher, it's not uncommon for those dedicated to academia to forgo professional accreditation with their respective province


2019-2022 Ph.D. in Seismology, Stanford University, USA

2010-2012 M.Sc. in Geophysics, University of Alberta, Canada

2007-2009 B.Sc. in Physics with honours, University of Alberta, Canada

2003-2007 B.Sc. in Chemistry with specialization, University of Alberta, Canada


GeoGeoGeoGeo OP t1_jdjo99j wrote

To be fair, Canada probably has one of, if not thee worlds most stringent set environmental laws and regulations. Of course this doesn't mean they can't be improved on but it certainly puts the rest of the world into perspective if you think Canada is lacking in that department.


GeoGeoGeoGeo OP t1_jdjgup0 wrote

The following is provided from the USGS:

>FICTION: You can prevent large earthquakes by making lots of small ones, or by “lubricating” the fault with water.

>Seismologists have observed that for every magnitude 6 earthquake there are about 10 of magnitude 5, 100 of magnitude 4, 1,000 of magnitude 3, and so forth as the events get smaller and smaller. This sounds like a lot of small earthquakes, but there are never enough small ones to eliminate the occasional large event. It would take 32 magnitude 5's, 1000 magnitude 4's, OR 32,000 magnitude 3's to equal the energy of one magnitude 6 event. So, even though we always record many more small events than large ones, there are far too few to eliminate the need for the occasional large earthquake.

>As for “lubricating” faults with water or some other substance, if anything, this would have the opposite effect. Injecting high-pressure fluids deep into the ground is known to be able to trigger earthquakes—to cause them to occur sooner than would have been the case without the injection. This would be a dangerous pursuit in any populated area, as one might trigger a damaging earthquake.


GeoGeoGeoGeo OP t1_jdbv2df wrote

Deuterium to hydrogen ratios relative to Earth's Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) values for Ring B, and Titan are relatively close though Enceladus and Phoebe greatly differ. Still, CI chondrite D/H ratios are closer to Earth's than any of Saturn's rings or moons.


GeoGeoGeoGeo OP t1_jdbufn3 wrote

Essentially achondrites are melted materials, all produced by melting of their parent bodies such as differentiated planetesimals and differentiated planetary bodies, like the Moon or Mars. Chondrites, on the other hand, have experienced no significant melting as they are pre-planetary rocks, or the building blocks of planets. The implication of this paper then is that Theia (the giant impactor hypothesis that leads to the formation of the moon) could not have delivered water to the early Earth.


GeoGeoGeoGeo t1_j5suvl3 wrote

There is a suggested different spin rate between the inner solid core and liquid outer core. The difference, however, is exceptionally small, and they both rotate at the same speed to within 0.001%.

The difference in speed is believed to be a result of two competing forces: The gravitational tug of the surrounding mantle, and the torque induced by the electromagnetic field from the outer core.

So when they report that its stopped spinning they mean relative to the mantle, same as when they say its reversed, and sped up.


GeoGeoGeoGeo OP t1_j2twr06 wrote

Glad to hear it! There are so many things I still find mind blowing or hard to grasp in geology, it's such a fantastic field of study. TPW is also thought to have occurred on Mars as well^1, ^2


GeoGeoGeoGeo OP t1_j2tjpsh wrote

That was actually my comment above explaining the differences between ATP and TPW and the theoretical speed limits to TPW (not that actual reported rate in the study, which was 40–50° over 10 million years or upwards of 55.5 cm/yr).

Interesting. As is the case with most conspiracy theories perhaps one or more of the individual components are correct on their own, but the details, mechanisms, and relationships between their interactions are woefully lacking in understanding.


GeoGeoGeoGeo OP t1_j2szzlb wrote

In fact it might just be, but not for your rock collection... for water.

>"The significance of finding opal on Mars will have advantages for future astronauts, and exploration efforts could take advantage of these widespread water resources. Opal itself is made up of predominantly two components: silica and water, with minor amounts of impurities such as iron. Since opal is not a mineral, the water is not bound as tightly within a crystal structure. This means that if you grind it down and apply heat, the opal releases its water. In a previous study, Gabriel and other Curiosity rover scientists demonstrated this exact process... a single-meter halo could house roughly one to 1.5 gallons of water in the top foot of the surface. Combined with growing evidence from satellite data that shows the presence of opal elsewhere on Mars, these resilient materials may be a great resource for future exploration activities elsewhere on Mars — that is, if opal elsewhere on Mars also retains water to the same degree as the opal in Gale Crater."


GeoGeoGeoGeo OP t1_j2qjl16 wrote

As to whether or not this would increase intraplate or marginal plate stress I really have no idea. If the plates don't move perfectly synchronously with one another there might be a bit of a jostling around per se. If there were, 677.1cm/yr (22 ft./yr) is potentially a lot of increased seismicity / strain within any infrastructure adjacent to or spanning major fault systems, along with subsequent increase in associated natural hazard risks. All that being said, TPW is effectively a decoupling of the fluid outer core to the silicate Earth (mantle and crust) so it really may be a bit of a stretch to think that there may be increased seismicity. Certainly interesting to ponder.