Impossible_Cookie596 OP t1_jachr6b wrote

Abstract: We present new 0.3–21 μm photometry of SN 2021aefx in the spiral galaxy NGC 1566 at +357 days after B-band maximum, including the first detection of any Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) at >15 μm. These observations follow earlier JWST observations of SN 2021aefx at +255 days after the time of maximum brightness, allowing us to probe the temporal evolution of the emission properties. We measure the fraction of flux emerging at different wavelengths and its temporal evolution. Additionally, the integrated 0.3–14 μm decay rate of Δm0.3–14 = 1.35 ± 0.05 mag/100 days is higher than the decline rate from the radioactive decay of 56Co of ∼1.2 mag/100 days. The most plausible explanation for this discrepancy is that flux is shifting to >14 μm, and future JWST observations of SNe Ia will be able to directly test this hypothesis. However, models predicting nonradiative energy loss cannot be excluded with the present data.


Impossible_Cookie596 OP t1_j9b651n wrote

Abstract: Molecular chirality is inherent to biology and cellular chemistry. In this report, the origin of enantiomeric selectivity is analyzed from the viewpoint of the “RNA World” model, based on the autocatalytic turnover of glyceraldehyde as a precursor for simple sugars, and in particular ribose, as promoted by the formose reaction. Coupling of formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde produces glyceraldehyde, which contains a chiral carbon center that is carried through in formation of the ribose ring. The parity non-conserving weak nuclear interaction is the only inherently handed property in nature and is herein shown to be sufficient to differentiate between two enantiomeric forms in an autocatalytic reaction performed over geologically relevant time scales, but only in the presence of catalytic metal ions such as divalent calcium or higher Z alkaline earth elements. This work details calculations of the magnitude of the effect, the impact of various geologically available metal ions, the effect of time and temperature, and their influence on chiral selection in the molecules of life. Alternative mechanisms are also considered, and a method of resolving these is proposed.


Impossible_Cookie596 OP t1_j6n5dfi wrote

Abstract: The dynamic response of the legged robot locomotion is non-Lipschitz and can be stochastic due to environmental uncertainties. To test, validate, and characterize the safety performance of legged robots, existing solutions on observed and inferred risk can be incomplete and sampling inefficient. Some formal verification methods suffer from the model precision and other surrogate assumptions. In this paper, we propose a scenario sampling based testing framework that characterizes the overall safety performance of a legged robot by specifying (i) where (in terms of a set of states) the robot is potentially safe, and (ii) how safe the robot is within the specified set. The framework can also help certify the commercial deployment of the legged robot in real-world environment along with human and compare safety performance among legged robots with different mechanical structures and dynamic properties. The proposed framework is further deployed to evaluate a group of state-of-the-art legged robot locomotion controllers from various model-based, deep neural network involved, and reinforcement learning based methods in the literature. Among a series of intended work domains of the studied legged robots (e.g. tracking speed on sloped surface, with abrupt changes on demanded velocity, and against adversarial push-over disturbances), we show that the method can adequately capture the overall safety characterization and the subtle performance insights. Many of the observed safety outcomes, to the best of our knowledge, have never been reported by the existing work in the legged robot literature.


Impossible_Cookie596 OP t1_j5oo9vf wrote

Abstract: The monetary cost of corrosion is currently estimated at 3 to 4% of the global GDP considering direct costs exclusively. However, no study to date has quantified the environmental impact associated with steel corrosion. Here, we determined that the CO2 emissions associated with the steelmaking required to replace corroded steel will be 4.1–9.1% of the total by 2030 considering the European Union and recent U.S. greenhouse gas reduction targets. We suggest that implementing corrosion management best-practices could drastically reduce the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the replacement of corroded steel and emphasize the need for coordinated international efforts.


Impossible_Cookie596 OP t1_j11hk0b wrote

Abstract: Red giants are stars in the late stages of stellar evolution. Because they have exhausted the supply of hydrogen in their core, they burn the hydrogen in the surrounding shell . Once the helium in the core starts fusing, the star enters the clump phase, which is identified as a striking feature in the color-magnitude diagram. Since clump stars share similar observational properties, they are heavily used in astrophysical studies, as probes of distance, extinction through the galaxy, galaxy density, and stellar chemical evolution. In this work, we perform the detailed observational characterization of the deepest layers of clump stars using asteroseismic data from Kepler. We find evidence for large core structural discontinuities in about 6.7% of the stars in our sample, implying that the region of mixing beyond the convective core boundary has a radiative thermal stratification. These stars are otherwise similar to the remaining stars in our sample, which may indicate that the building of the discontinuities is an intermittent phenomenon.