This article is pretty cool, and as a quantum computer enthusiast I understand fairly well how the whole process outlined in one of the papers works to transfer energy between two qubits. However, I did not understand the part about the vacuum being "intrinsically entangled". I know that quantum fields can be entangled when two particles entangle since all particles are just excitations in a vacuum, but what does it mean for a quantum field in the vacuum itself to be entangled? If the field is entangled with itself everywhere, then doesn't that mean every particle which is an excitation of that field should be entangled with every other one (which obviously doesn't happen since we don't observe that)?

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Physicists Use Quantum Mechanics to Pull Energy out of NothingbyVailhemThis article is pretty cool, and as a quantum computer enthusiast I understand fairly well how the whole process outlined in one of the papers works to transfer energy between two qubits. However, I did not understand the part about the vacuum being "intrinsically entangled". I know that quantum fields can be entangled when two particles entangle since all particles are just excitations in a vacuum, but what does it mean for a quantum field in the vacuum itself to be entangled? If the field is entangled with itself everywhere, then doesn't that mean every particle which is an excitation of that field should be entangled with every other one (which obviously doesn't happen since we don't observe that)?