Skookum_J t1_jbtgb15 wrote

Based on Genetic evidence, current running theory is they split from the people of Eastern Siberia about 30,000 years ago.

Most accepted theory right now is they crossed Beringia, a stretch of land that was exposed when the sea levels were much lower during the last glacial maximum. They then, were isolated in Beringia & Alaska for a few thousand years, before they made it past the ice sheets down to the rest of the Americas.

The exact method & route of getting past the ice sheets is up to a bit of debate. Old theory was a route through Canada down to the Midwest that opened about 13,000 years ago. but sites like Monte Verde, Page Ladson, Cooper's Ferry, and many more have been found that pre date the opening of that path.

So a different route has been hypothesized. The Coastal Migration hypothesis is that about 18,000 years ago, the Cordilleran ice sheet receded a bit exposing a chain of islands along the west coast of Canada. Using boats, or rafts, the people expanded down the coast, island hopping, following the Kelp highway.

But this Kelp highway theory has recently come under question as well. Footprints found at White Sands have been dated to around 22,000 years ago. Too early for the coastal route to have been viable. the dating of these foot prints is still in question. But if accurate, a new theory will have to be worked out on how people got from Beringia to the rest of the Americas.


Skookum_J t1_jbtchmo wrote

Couple interesting ones.

Poverty Point, is a site in Louisiana, dating to around 3200 years ago. Stone artifacts have been found at the site made with stone from as far as Ohio or Iowa. The site is also known for these strange little baked clay objects, known as Poverty Point Objects. No one's quite sure what they're for. But they were traded all over the Eastern US. Some have been found as far away as Florida.

Another cool one is Cahokia. Located in Missouri, and dating back about 1000 years. The site was a major trade hub. Getting Obsidian from as far as the Rockies, shells from the Gulf Coast, and copper from the Great Lakes. And they produced the really intricate copper plates that were traded as far as Wisconsin and Florida.


Skookum_J t1_j6tjd1u wrote

Could check out The Pirate Queen, by Susan Ronald. It's about the court of Elizabeth and the "adventurers" that she surrounded herself with. To the French and Spanish, they were Pirates, but to the English they were "privateers" or gentleman adventurers.

Edit: saw you're also looking for stuff on after the Elizabethan era.

Empire of Blue Water, by Stephan Talty. is a great biography of Henry Morgan. Technically he was a Privateer, and he would have been pissed if you called him a Pirate. But for everyone but the English, he was The Pirate.

Under the Black Flag, by David Cordingly is a great overview of piracy up to and through the Golden Age of piracy. Dispells some of the myths, and tells the real stories behind some of the most famous Pirates.


Skookum_J t1_j4xozkj wrote

Check out the Hussites. Real interesting period in military history. And the Hussites are a fascinating group that developed a method of fighting that allowed previously untrained peasants to fight head to head with one of the most powerful military forces of their time.

Warrior of God: Jan Zizka and the Hussite Revolution, by Victor Verney is a great start.


Skookum_J t1_iza7vqz wrote

A History of the world in 6 glasses, by Tom Standage is a fun read. Covers the development of culture and technology through the lense of 6 drinks.

At Home, by Bill Bryson is another great read. Covers the development of all the material and technology that goes into a modern home. Bryson's writing is also a lot of fun to read.

Maybe a bit off topic, but you might enjoy Longitude, by Dava Sobe. More of a biography of the inventor, but it covers the development of the clock that is the origin of pocket watch, and its role and importance for navigation at sea.


Skookum_J t1_iyrtt73 wrote

Usually the variations come from who they're counting. The 20 million range is direct military casualties. i.e. just the people that were in armies. The 50 million range includes all the soldiers plus the civilians that were killed by military operations. i.e. civilians killed in fire bombing of cities. The highest range, the 70 million range, includes everyone, the soldiers the civilians killed in battles, and everyone that was killed due to famines and disease outbreaks that were caused by the war.


Skookum_J t1_iv5xaym wrote

There's a whole string of stories from Australia that talk about sea level rise. Some have been checked and found to tell accurate details from 10,000 years ago.

There's also the stories around Crater Lake, Oregon that have details suggesting they saw the eruption of Mt Mazama 7700 years ago.

Other stories have been suggested to contain oral history. But they're hard to prove or find evidence for. I know of outburst flood stories from N America and Asia, that are suggestive of ancient floods. But it's hard to disentangle ancient flood stories from more recent floods.


Skookum_J t1_isxnwhc wrote

Anybody know of some good biographies of Simon Bolivar?

Been reading some books on naval history of the 1800's, and the South American revolutions came up a number of times. Piqued my interest. Know little of them, and Bolivar seems like a great place to start.

Any recommendations?