TheGreat_War_Machine t1_ja7y2oe wrote

Well, let's look at it this way:

There are several types of amino acids that join together into long chains to form proteins. These amino acids are either hydrophilic or hydrophobic. This hydrophilicity is what gives proteins their shape. Because the body is mostly made of water, the chains will arrange themselves in such a way that the hydrophilic aminos will be as close to the water molecules as possible while the hydrophobic aminos will do the opposite. Additionally, during tertiary folding, separate chains of proteins come together via hydrogen bonds (ref. high school chemistry).

For prions to be able to misfold other proteins, it would need to overcome these chemical properties to replace one or several of these amino acids to cause a change in how the other protein folds.


TheGreat_War_Machine t1_ja3634z wrote

Prions aren't just misfolded proteins, they are a misfold of a specific protein found in the brain. That being said, it could be argued that any disease involving a mutant protein inherently means that it is misfolded, because changing just one amino acid on a chain can affect how that protein folds, thus changing its shape. Shape determines function in nature. We don't have an explanation for why prions specifically are pathogenic while other misfolded proteins are not.

Edit: Amino, not nucleic


TheGreat_War_Machine t1_j4946hx wrote

From an economic perspective, waste doesn't mean anything if the product has already been paid for. Prices won't go up if it's the consumer that is throwing away the product after they have already paid for it.


TheGreat_War_Machine t1_j2fo8gn wrote

Students learn it as early as middle school in biology. The study of meiosis will inherently lead to at least a passing mention of "oh yeah, the whole sperm and egg thing, that applies to us humans too."


TheGreat_War_Machine t1_ixm6b2l wrote

Bread is such a basic item that you'd be surprised by how little you actually need to make it. Sure, you may not get a product that's like what you'd find on the store shelf, but it offers the same benefits for paleolithic peoples.


TheGreat_War_Machine t1_it5qsx4 wrote

War and disputes have been a thing since at least the dawn of European civilizations, such as the Greeks, if not earlier. And it's not like Asia or Africa were not subject to constant wars, though they took different forms.

In Asia, a lot of wars, particularly the bloodiest ones, occurred in China as a result of regime changes or collapses of the empire. While WW2 is the bloodiest war in world history, China has its share of the other 9 bloodiest wars.


TheGreat_War_Machine t1_ircj6w1 wrote

Mitochondria used to be separate organisms, but were integrated into other single celled organisms to make eukaryotes. The mitochondria still have their own DNA, and that DNA is passed down during cell division.

Babies inherit the same mitochondria that their mothers have, which can be detrimental if the mother has a preexisting mitochondrial disorder.