YardFudge t1_j2dxwpe wrote

US Govt has been using CAC / PIV cards for decades

The problem (and security) of all these hardware-based methods is that’s it’s very hard to replace …. meaning there must be a close to 24-365, usually in-person, process to validate a person as to unlock/replace the token/card. Thus it’s expensive — both to man that service and being unable to work while waiting for that service