aphilsphan t1_jd5v5ex wrote

I was a grad student in the early 80s. There was a prof in our department who had been doing slow steady respectable RNA biochemistry work for 20 years. Not in HIV or even with whole viruses, with RNA viral enzymes. His work was barely funded, some semesters his 2 to 3 grad students taught, sometimes they’d get a break. By 1988 agencies leaving sacks of 50s on his doorstep. To his credit, this guy didn’t expand too much. He got a postdoc and better equipment and his students didn’t have to teach. It was fascinating to see that field go from backwater to front burner like that.


aphilsphan t1_jc2znif wrote

CO2 deposition would occur at the Martian poles. The dry ice sublimes when the temperature gets high enough and deposits again when it gets colder. This drives a lot of the changes in atmospheric pressure.

I’d like to see a planet with enough pressure and the right temperature range for CO2 to be a liquid. I’m sure there are ammonia dominated planets.


aphilsphan t1_j9b8qyi wrote

Reply to comment by -Arke- in Why are we not acidic? by stronkreddituser

To add a bit, an amino acid can and will protonate itself. So the COOH (carboxylic acid) group “loses” its hydrogen as an ion (called a proton by chemists because that’s what it is). This results in the pronation of the amine (NH2) group. So you’ve got COO- on one end and NH3+ on the other. This is the “zwitterion” form.

Lots of chemistry is learning the vocabulary because the vocabulary makes it easier to communicate quickly.


aphilsphan t1_j2nhj2v wrote

Democracies aren’t perfect, but they are much more transparent than authoritarian states. People see and read about the imperfections of democracies which our own politicians and press publicize. But Russian problems can be hidden to some degree and most people are unsophisticated and can’t see the subtle differences.

China shows how a regime that is only going to steal some of the wealth generated, and will allow a fairly large elite to get in on the theft (as opposed to the DPRK, where the grift is quite limited), can be popular. There are a lot of crumbs left over in China for the mass of people. So what to Americans is abject poverty is actually a huge improvement and will look really good to people in places like Africa. Their governments aren’t delivering, comparatively China’s does.

For Russia in the West there is also this weird, “well they are Christians and are defending ‘whiteness.’” In the USA, Orthodox ritual would make our Fundamentalists puke, but it is safely in Russia so it’s ok.


aphilsphan t1_j2naydh wrote

I got one or two of those. I felt honor bound to delete them. We were a smallish business but part of a pretty big company. Some of our customers were enormous. Once when discussing a newly identified but inconsequential impurity with an enormous pharma, they got into a big internal fight in front of us. Ok one time. But it was every week.

Same company berated us for missing a particle size spec we didn’t know existed. They had a senior VP on the call to yell at us. He realized they had added the spec without telling us and yelled at his people in front of us. Pharma can be nuts.


aphilsphan t1_j2m6z9e wrote

I used to prep drug master files for the API. They’d be smaller of course, but still with three copies printing, etc was a chore. And yes, a lot of it was executed batch records and the environmental statement, which i guarantee no one ever read.

I once accidentally discovered a note in the middle of one I was compiling yelling at my group for monopolizing the printer. It could easily have gone to FDA. I would’ve loved to get that deficiency letter. “Please explain the copier/printer drama…”. Same guy who put in the note made a complaint about me to HR because I let the FDA ask him a question on a tour. (We were a small shop.). They had to explain the law to him. He was still pissed. “Hey, bud I answer their questions 8 hours a day, you can answer one about a lab balance.” Good times.


aphilsphan t1_j2l2xuq wrote

To answer your question in the simplest way, every difference in dosage form is a separate New Drug Application (NDA) in the USA. The process is usually called a license application or Marketing Authorization elsewhere, but the processes are broadly similar. In one NDA, you could say, “we are going to offer this in 5, 10 and 20 mg capsules…” and you’d need to justify why those are the sizes.

You can reference information from one application in another. If the same impurities were in a capsule and oral liquid for a drug, and both hit the bloodstream the same way, you don’t have to repeat the tox study on the impurities.

I should point out that in the days when everything sent to an agency was on paper, forests trembled at the size of these filings. Now they are electronic and are even bigger.


aphilsphan t1_j1aarel wrote

Mind if it ask a question knowledgeable Redditor?

Since we are seeing light from a galaxy formed 700,000,000 years after the Big Bang, which took 13 billion years to get here. Does that mean that galaxy had to be 13 billion years away from us when the light left? Of more accurately 13 billion years minus some figure that accounts for the expansion of the universe?

So at the Bug Bang plus 700 million years, the universe was at least 13 billion years across?


aphilsphan t1_j17a83p wrote

Carbon can be thought of as hybridized sp, as in acetylene where the bond angles are 180, sp2, as in benzene (120) or sp3, as in methane, (109.5).

The oxygen in water has 2 lone pairs and two protons around it so it’s best to think about it as sp3 hybridized. The lone pairs repel a bit more than the protons do, squeezing the bond angle a little bit below 109.5, to like 104.

But yes it’s always flexing and such at room temperature. Also, the protons are constantly exchanging, so any one distinct water molecule has a pretty short “lifetime.”


aphilsphan t1_ixmwb8x wrote

You run into the problem of differences in silver/gold/etc content, so in addition to the difference in price between gold and silver themselves, the weights and purity of coins varied. Rome was a very sophisticated place to have a monetized economy under those circumstances. A merchant had to have a keen eye and good scales. It’s should be no real surprise that the economy in the West reverted to barter eventually. Imagine having a bag of euro and dollars and kroner today without access to a computer to know their immediate value.


aphilsphan t1_itx1d2w wrote

Evidence doesn’t matter when anything you disagree with can be called “communism.”

Economists will tell you if you want less of something, tax it. And surprise, we already HAVE carbon taxes at the gas pump both state and federal in the USA. But any attempt to raise that is called “communism.”


aphilsphan t1_it7r6un wrote

Historians used to think of 410 as almost a rowdy tourist visit. I’m not sure that’s true anymore. It was the Vandals in 455 that really ruined things, then Belisarius versus the Ostrogoths and Lombards that did the coup de grace. But if you think about it, in 405 the Danube and Rhine frontiers are leaking but they are still there and 5 years later the Visigoths are in Rome. Very sad.