basmwklz OP t1_jdpspb4 wrote


•Obesity establishes an IFN-I-deprived tumor microenvironment and increases tumor burden

•Myeloid cells from obese hosts are desensitized to STING stimulation

•Saturated fatty acids inhibit the STING pathway by inducing NLRC3

• NLRC3 inhibits the immunogenicity of HNSCC in an IFN-I-dependent fashion


Oncogenes destabilize STING in epithelial cell-derived cancer cells, such as head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), to promote immune escape. Despite the abundance of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, HNSCC presents notable resistance to STING stimulation. Here, we show how saturated fatty acids in the microenvironment dampen tumor response to STING stimulation. Using single-cell analysis, we found that obesity creates an IFN-I-deprived tumor microenvironment with a massive expansion of suppressive myeloid cell clusters and contraction of effector T cells. Saturated fatty acids, but not unsaturated fatty acids, potently inhibit the STING-IFN-I pathway in HNSCC cells. Myeloid cells from obese mice show dampened responses to STING stimulation and are more suppressive of T cell activation. In agreement, obese hosts exhibited increased tumor burden and lower responsiveness to STING agonist. As a mechanism, saturated fatty acids induce the expression of NLRC3, depletion of which results in a T cell inflamed tumor microenvironment and IFN-I-dependent tumor control.


basmwklz OP t1_jdprb76 wrote

Abstract: >Astrocytes provide key neuronal support, and their phenotypic transformation is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Metabolically, astrocytes possess low mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) activity, but its pathophysiological role in neurodegeneration remains unclear. Here, we show that the brain critically depends on astrocytic OxPhos to degrade fatty acids (FAs) and maintain lipid homeostasis. Aberrant astrocytic OxPhos induces lipid droplet (LD) accumulation followed by neurodegeneration that recapitulates key features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including synaptic loss, neuroinflammation, demyelination and cognitive impairment. Mechanistically, when FA load overwhelms astrocytic OxPhos capacity, elevated acetyl-CoA levels induce astrocyte reactivity by enhancing STAT3 acetylation and activation. Intercellularly, lipid-laden reactive astrocytes stimulate neuronal FA oxidation and oxidative stress, activate microglia through IL-3 signalling, and inhibit the biosynthesis of FAs and phospholipids required for myelin replenishment. Along with LD accumulation and impaired FA degradation manifested in an AD mouse model, we reveal a lipid-centric, AD-resembling mechanism by which astrocytic mitochondrial dysfunction progressively induces neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.


basmwklz OP t1_jazclf2 wrote



Ketogenic diet (KD) is recommended to avoid intense [18F]FDG myocardial physiologic uptake in PET imaging. Neuroprotective and anti-seizure effects of KD have been suggested, but their mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This [18F]FDG PET study aims to evaluate the effect of KD on glucose brain metabolism.


Subjects who underwent KD prior to whole-body and brain [18F]FDG PET between January 2019 and December 2020 in our department for suspected endocarditis were retrospectively included. Myocardial glucose suppression (MGS) on whole-body PET was analyzed. Patients with brain abnormalities were excluded. Thirty-four subjects with MGS (mean age: 61.8 ± 17.2 years) were included in the KD population, and 14 subjects without MGS were considered for a partial KD group (mean age: 62.3 ± 15.1 years). Brain SUVmax was first compared between these two KD groups to determine possible global uptake difference. Semiquantitative voxel-based intergroup analyses were secondarily performed to determine possible inter-regional differences by comparing KD groups with and without MGS, separately, to 27 healthy subjects fasting for at least 6 h (mean age of 62.4 ± 10.9 years), and KD groups between them (p-voxel < 0.001, and p-cluster < 0.05, FWE-corrected).


A 20% lower brain SUVmax was found in subjects under KD with MGS in comparison to those without MGS (Student’s t-test, p = 0.02). Whole-brain voxel-based intergroup analysis revealed that patients under KD with and without MGS had relative hypermetabolism of limbic regions including medial temporal cortices and cerebellum lobes and relative hypometabolism of bilateral posterior regions (occipital), without significant difference between them.


KD globally reduces brain glucose metabolism but with regional differences, requiring special attention to clinical interpretation. On a pathophysiological perspective, these findings could help understand underlying neurological effects of KD through possible decrease of oxidative stress in posterior regions and functional compensation in the limbic regions.


basmwklz OP t1_j9e2xnv wrote

Abstract: >Accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates is a hallmark event in many age-related protein misfolding disorders, including some of the most prevalent and insidious neurodegenerative diseases. Misfolded protein aggregates produce progressive cell damage, organ dysfunction, and clinical changes, which are common also in natural aging. Thus, we hypothesized that aging is associated to the widespread and progressive misfolding and aggregation of many proteins in various tissues. In this study, we analyzed whether proteins misfold, aggregate, and accumulate during normal aging in three different biological systems, namely senescent cells, Caenorhabditis elegans, and mouse tissues collected at different times from youth to old age. Our results show a significant accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates in aged samples as compared to young materials. Indeed, aged samples have between 1.3 and 2.5-fold (depending on the biological system) higher amount of insoluble proteins than young samples. These insoluble proteins exhibit the typical characteristics of disease-associated aggregates, including insolubility in detergents, protease resistance, and staining with amyloid-binding dye as well as accumulation in aggresomes. We identified the main proteins accumulating in the aging brain using proteomic studies. These results show that the aged brain contain large amounts of misfolded and likely non-functional species of many proteins, whose soluble versions participate in cellular pathways that play fundamental roles in preserving basic functions, such as protein quality control, synapsis, and metabolism. Our findings reveal a putative role for protein misfolding and aggregation in aging.


basmwklz OP t1_j95qa3x wrote

Abstract: >Pharmacological vitamin C (VC) is a potential natural compound for cancer treatment. However, the mechanism underlying its antitumor effects remains unclear. In this study, we found that pharmacological VC significantly inhibits the mTOR (including mTORC1 and mTORC2) pathway activation and promotes GSK3-FBXW7-mediated Rictor ubiquitination and degradation by increasing the cellular ROS. Moreover, we identified that HMOX1 is a checkpoint for pharmacological-VC-mediated mTOR inactivation, and the deletion of FBXW7 or HMOX1 suppresses the regulation of pharmacological VC on mTOR activation, cell size, cell viability, and autophagy. More importantly, it was observed that the inhibition of mTOR by pharmacological VC supplementation in vivo produces positive therapeutic responses in tumor growth, while HMOX1 deficiency rescues the inhibitory effect of pharmacological VC on tumor growth. These results demonstrate that VC influences cellular activities and tumor growth by inhibiting the mTOR pathway through Rictor and HMOX1, which may have therapeutic potential for cancer treatment.


basmwklz OP t1_j94lfbj wrote

Introduction: The discovery of immune checkpoints and the development of their specific inhibitors was acclaimed as a major breakthrough in cancer therapy. However, only a limited patient cohort shows sufficient response to therapy. Hence, there is a need for identifying new checkpoints and predictive biomarkers with the objective of overcoming immune escape and resistance to treatment. Having been associated with both, treatment response and failure, LDL seems to be a double-edged sword in anti-PD1 immunotherapy. Being embedded into complex metabolic conditions, the impact of LDL on distinct immune cells has not been sufficiently addressed. Revealing the effects of LDL on T cell performance in tumor immunity may enable individual treatment adjustments in order to enhance the response to routinely administered immunotherapies in different patient populations. The object of this work was to investigate the effect of LDL on T cell activation and tumor immunity in-vitro.

Methods: Experiments were performed with different LDL dosages (LDLlow = 50 μg/ml and LDLhigh = 200 μg/ml) referring to medium control. T cell phenotype, cytokines and metabolism were analyzed. The functional relevance of our findings was studied in a HCT116 spheroid model in the context of anti-PD-1 blockade.

Results: The key points of our findings showed that LDLhigh skewed the CD4+ T cell subset into a central memory-like phenotype, enhanced the expression of the co-stimulatory marker CD154 (CD40L) and significantly reduced secretion of IL-10. The exhaustion markers PD-1 and LAG-3 were downregulated on both T cell subsets and phenotypical changes were associated with a balanced T cell metabolism, in particular with a significant decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS). T cell transfer into a HCT116 spheroid model resulted in a significant reduction of the spheroid viability in presence of an anti-PD-1 antibody combined with LDLhigh.

Discussion: Further research needs to be conducted to fully understand the impact of LDL on T cells in tumor immunity and moreover, to also unravel LDL effects on other lymphocytes and myeloid cells for improving anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. The reason for improved response might be a resilient, less exhausted phenotype with balanced ROS levels.


basmwklz OP t1_j87oao6 wrote

Abstract: >This study aims to investigate how metformin (Met) affects muscle tissue by evaluating the drug effects on proliferating, differentiating, and differentiated C2C12 cells. Moreover, we also investigated the role of 5’-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the mechanism of action of Met. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in growth medium with or without Met (250μM, 1mM and 10mM) for different times. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, while cell toxicity was assessed by Trypan Blue exclusion test and Lactate Dehydrogenase release. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting analysis was performed to study cell cycle. Differentiating myoblasts were incubated in differentiation medium (DM) with or without 10mM Met. For experiments on myotubes, C2C12 were induced to differentiate in DM, and then treated with Met at scalar concentrations and for different times. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the expression of proteins involved in myoblast differentiation, muscle function and metabolism. In differentiating C2C12, Met inhibited cell differentiation, arrested cell cycle progression in G2/M phase and reduced the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1. These effects were accompanied by activation of AMPK and modulation of the myogenic regulatory factors. Comparable results were obtained in myotubes. The use of Compound C, a specific inhibitor of AMPK, counteracted the above-mentioned Met effects. We reported that Met inhibits C2C12 differentiation probably by blocking cell-cycle progression and preventing cells permanent exit from cell-cycle. Moreover, our study provides solid evidence that most of the effects of Met on myoblasts and myotubes are mediated by AMPK.


basmwklz OP t1_j87o2qj wrote



In addition to its contractile properties and role in movement, skeletal muscle plays an important function in regulating whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism. A central component of such regulation is mitochondria, whose quality and function are essential in maintaining proper metabolic homeostasis, with defects in processes such as autophagy and mitophagy involved in mitochondria quality control impairing skeletal muscle mass and function, and potentially leading to a number of associated diseases. Cold exposure has been reported to markedly induce metabolic remodeling and enhance insulin sensitivity in the whole body by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. However, changes in lipid metabolism and lipidomic profiles in skeletal muscle in response to cold exposure are unclear. Here, we generated lipidomic or transcriptome profiles of mouse skeletal muscle following cold induction, to dissect the molecular mechanisms regulating lipid metabolism upon acute cold treatment.


Our results indicated that short-term cold exposure (3 days) can lead to a significant increase in intramuscular fat deposition. Lipidomic analyses revealed that a cold challenge altered the overall lipid composition by increasing the content of triglyceride (TG), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), while decreasing sphingomyelin (SM), validating lipid remodeling during the cold environment. In addition, RNA-seq and qPCR analysis showed that cold exposure promoted the expression of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid biosynthesis. These marked changes in metabolic effects were associated with mitophagy and muscle signaling pathways, which were accompanied by increased TG deposition and impaired fatty acid oxidation. Mechanistically, HIF-1α signaling was highly activated in response to the cold challenge, which may contribute to intramuscular fat deposition and enhanced mitophagy in a cold environment.


Overall, our data revealed the adaptive changes of skeletal muscle associated with lipidomic and transcriptomic profiles upon cold exposure. We described the significant alterations in the composition of specific lipid species and expression of genes involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Cold-mediated mitophagy may play a critical role in modulating lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle, which is precisely regulated by HIF-1α signaling.


basmwklz OP t1_j7vvbza wrote

Abstract: >The geroscience hypothesis proposes that therapy to slow or reverse molecular changes that occur with aging can delay or prevent multiple chronic diseases and extend healthy lifespan1,2,3. Caloric restriction (CR), defined as lessening caloric intake without depriving essential nutrients4, results in changes in molecular processes that have been associated with aging, including DNA methylation (DNAm)5,6,7, and is established to increase healthy lifespan in multiple species8,9. Here we report the results of a post hoc analysis of the influence of CR on DNAm measures of aging in blood samples from the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) trial, a randomized controlled trial in which n = 220 adults without obesity were randomized to 25% CR or ad libitum control diet for 2 yr (ref. 10). We found that CALERIE intervention slowed the pace of aging, as measured by the DunedinPACE DNAm algorithm, but did not lead to significant changes in biological age estimates measured by various DNAm clocks including PhenoAge and GrimAge. Treatment effect sizes were small. Nevertheless, modest slowing of the pace of aging can have profound effects on population health11,12,13. The finding that CR modified DunedinPACE in a randomized controlled trial supports the geroscience hypothesis, building on evidence from small and uncontrolled studies14,15,16 and contrasting with reports that biological aging may not be modifiable17. Ultimately, a conclusive test of the geroscience hypothesis will require trials with long-term follow-up to establish effects of intervention on primary healthy-aging endpoints, including incidence of chronic disease and mortality18,19,20.


basmwklz OP t1_j7a7om4 wrote

Abstract: >Flavin containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are promiscuous enzymes known for metabolizing a wide range of exogenous compounds. In C. elegans, fmo-2 expression increases lifespan and healthspan downstream of multiple longevity-promoting pathways through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that, beyond its classification as a xenobiotic enzyme, fmo-2 expression leads to rewiring of endogenous metabolism principally through changes in one carbon metabolism (OCM). These changes are likely relevant, as we find that genetically modifying OCM enzyme expression leads to alterations in longevity that interact with fmo-2 expression. Using computer modeling, we identify decreased methylation as the major OCM flux modified by FMO-2 that is sufficient to recapitulate its longevity benefits. We further find that tryptophan is decreased in multiple mammalian FMO overexpression models and is a validated substrate for FMO-2. Our resulting model connects a single enzyme to two previously unconnected key metabolic pathways and provides a framework for the metabolic interconnectivity of longevity-promoting pathways such as dietary restriction. FMOs are well-conserved enzymes that are also induced by lifespan-extending interventions in mice, supporting a conserved and important role in promoting health and longevity through metabolic remodeling.


basmwklz OP t1_j6qziw7 wrote

Abstract: >Years of use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has long been associated with the risk of vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Accumulating evidence has shown that metformin may exert beneficial effects by altering the metabolism of the gut microbiota, but whether it induces human B12 deficiency via modulation of bacterial activity remains poorly understood. Here, we show that both metformin and the other biguanide drug phenformin markedly elevate the accumulation of B12 in E. coli. By functional and genomic analysis, we demonstrate that both biguanides can significantly increase the expression of B12 transporter genes, and depletions of vital ones, such as tonB, nearly completely abolish the drugs’ effect on bacterial B12 accumulation. Via high-throughput screens in E. coli and C. elegans, we reveal that the TetR-type transcription factor RcdA is required for biguanide-mediated promotion of B12 accumulation and the expressions of B12 transporter genes in bacteria. Together, our study unveils that the antidiabetic drug metformin helps bacteria gather B12 from the environment by increasing the expressions of B12 transporter genes in an RcdA-dependent manner, which may theoretically reduce the B12 supply to T2D patients taking the drug over time.


basmwklz OP t1_j5eij4q wrote

Abstract: >Metabolism is intimately linked to aging. There is a growing number of studies showing that endogenous metabolites may delay aging and improve healthspan. Through the analysis of existing transcriptome data, we discover a link between activation of the transsulfuration pathway and a transcriptional program involved in peroxisome function and biogenesis in long-lived glp-1(e2141ts) mutant Caenorhabditis elegans worms. Subsequently, we show that supplementation with α-ketobutyrate, an intermediate of the transsulfuration pathway, extends lifespan in wild-type worms. Alpha-ketobutyrate augments the production of NAD+ via the lactate dehydrogenase LDH-1, leading to SIR-2.1/SIRT1-mediated enhanced peroxisome function and biogenesis, along with a concomitant increase in the expression of acox-1.2/ACOX1 in the peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. ACOX-1.2/ACOX1 promotes H2O2 formation, thereby resulting in activation of SKN-1/NRF2. This transcription factor in turn extends the lifespan of worms by driving expression of autophagic and lysosomal genes. Finally, we show that α-ketobutyrate also delays the cellular senescence in fibroblast cells through the SIRT1-ACOX1-H2O2-NRF2 pathway. This finding uncovers a previously unknown role for α-ketobutyrate in organismal lifespan and healthspan by coordinating the NAD+-SIRT1 signaling and peroxisomal function.


basmwklz OP t1_j3kjaui wrote

Abstract: >Ketone bodies have beneficial metabolic activities, and the induction of plasma ketone bodies is a health promotion strategy. Dietary supplementation of sodium butyrate (SB) is an effective approach in the induction of plasma ketone bodies. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this study, SB was found to enhance the catalytic activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2), a rate-limiting enzyme in ketogenesis, to promote ketone body production in hepatocytes. SB administrated by gavage or intraperitoneal injection significantly induced blood ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in mice. BHB production was induced in the primary hepatocytes by SB. Protein succinylation was altered by SB in the liver tissues with down-regulation in 58 proteins and up-regulation in 26 proteins in the proteomics analysis. However, the alteration was mostly observed in mitochondrial proteins with 41% down- and 65% up-regulation, respectively. Succinylation status of HMGCS2 protein was altered by a reduction at two sites (K221 and K358) without a change in the protein level. The SB effect was significantly reduced by a SIRT5 inhibitor and in Sirt5-KO mice. The data suggests that SB activated HMGCS2 through SIRT5-mediated desuccinylation for ketone body production by the liver. The effect was not associated with an elevation in NAD+/NADH ratio according to our metabolomics analysis. The data provide a novel molecular mechanism for SB activity in the induction of ketone body production.