basmwklz OP t1_jdpspb4 wrote


•Obesity establishes an IFN-I-deprived tumor microenvironment and increases tumor burden

•Myeloid cells from obese hosts are desensitized to STING stimulation

•Saturated fatty acids inhibit the STING pathway by inducing NLRC3

• NLRC3 inhibits the immunogenicity of HNSCC in an IFN-I-dependent fashion


Oncogenes destabilize STING in epithelial cell-derived cancer cells, such as head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), to promote immune escape. Despite the abundance of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, HNSCC presents notable resistance to STING stimulation. Here, we show how saturated fatty acids in the microenvironment dampen tumor response to STING stimulation. Using single-cell analysis, we found that obesity creates an IFN-I-deprived tumor microenvironment with a massive expansion of suppressive myeloid cell clusters and contraction of effector T cells. Saturated fatty acids, but not unsaturated fatty acids, potently inhibit the STING-IFN-I pathway in HNSCC cells. Myeloid cells from obese mice show dampened responses to STING stimulation and are more suppressive of T cell activation. In agreement, obese hosts exhibited increased tumor burden and lower responsiveness to STING agonist. As a mechanism, saturated fatty acids induce the expression of NLRC3, depletion of which results in a T cell inflamed tumor microenvironment and IFN-I-dependent tumor control.


basmwklz OP t1_jdprb76 wrote

Abstract: >Astrocytes provide key neuronal support, and their phenotypic transformation is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Metabolically, astrocytes possess low mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) activity, but its pathophysiological role in neurodegeneration remains unclear. Here, we show that the brain critically depends on astrocytic OxPhos to degrade fatty acids (FAs) and maintain lipid homeostasis. Aberrant astrocytic OxPhos induces lipid droplet (LD) accumulation followed by neurodegeneration that recapitulates key features of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including synaptic loss, neuroinflammation, demyelination and cognitive impairment. Mechanistically, when FA load overwhelms astrocytic OxPhos capacity, elevated acetyl-CoA levels induce astrocyte reactivity by enhancing STAT3 acetylation and activation. Intercellularly, lipid-laden reactive astrocytes stimulate neuronal FA oxidation and oxidative stress, activate microglia through IL-3 signalling, and inhibit the biosynthesis of FAs and phospholipids required for myelin replenishment. Along with LD accumulation and impaired FA degradation manifested in an AD mouse model, we reveal a lipid-centric, AD-resembling mechanism by which astrocytic mitochondrial dysfunction progressively induces neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.


basmwklz OP t1_jazclf2 wrote



Ketogenic diet (KD) is recommended to avoid intense [18F]FDG myocardial physiologic uptake in PET imaging. Neuroprotective and anti-seizure effects of KD have been suggested, but their mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This [18F]FDG PET study aims to evaluate the effect of KD on glucose brain metabolism.


Subjects who underwent KD prior to whole-body and brain [18F]FDG PET between January 2019 and December 2020 in our department for suspected endocarditis were retrospectively included. Myocardial glucose suppression (MGS) on whole-body PET was analyzed. Patients with brain abnormalities were excluded. Thirty-four subjects with MGS (mean age: 61.8 ± 17.2 years) were included in the KD population, and 14 subjects without MGS were considered for a partial KD group (mean age: 62.3 ± 15.1 years). Brain SUVmax was first compared between these two KD groups to determine possible global uptake difference. Semiquantitative voxel-based intergroup analyses were secondarily performed to determine possible inter-regional differences by comparing KD groups with and without MGS, separately, to 27 healthy subjects fasting for at least 6 h (mean age of 62.4 ± 10.9 years), and KD groups between them (p-voxel < 0.001, and p-cluster < 0.05, FWE-corrected).


A 20% lower brain SUVmax was found in subjects under KD with MGS in comparison to those without MGS (Student’s t-test, p = 0.02). Whole-brain voxel-based intergroup analysis revealed that patients under KD with and without MGS had relative hypermetabolism of limbic regions including medial temporal cortices and cerebellum lobes and relative hypometabolism of bilateral posterior regions (occipital), without significant difference between them.


KD globally reduces brain glucose metabolism but with regional differences, requiring special attention to clinical interpretation. On a pathophysiological perspective, these findings could help understand underlying neurological effects of KD through possible decrease of oxidative stress in posterior regions and functional compensation in the limbic regions.


basmwklz OP t1_j9e2xnv wrote

Abstract: >Accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates is a hallmark event in many age-related protein misfolding disorders, including some of the most prevalent and insidious neurodegenerative diseases. Misfolded protein aggregates produce progressive cell damage, organ dysfunction, and clinical changes, which are common also in natural aging. Thus, we hypothesized that aging is associated to the widespread and progressive misfolding and aggregation of many proteins in various tissues. In this study, we analyzed whether proteins misfold, aggregate, and accumulate during normal aging in three different biological systems, namely senescent cells, Caenorhabditis elegans, and mouse tissues collected at different times from youth to old age. Our results show a significant accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates in aged samples as compared to young materials. Indeed, aged samples have between 1.3 and 2.5-fold (depending on the biological system) higher amount of insoluble proteins than young samples. These insoluble proteins exhibit the typical characteristics of disease-associated aggregates, including insolubility in detergents, protease resistance, and staining with amyloid-binding dye as well as accumulation in aggresomes. We identified the main proteins accumulating in the aging brain using proteomic studies. These results show that the aged brain contain large amounts of misfolded and likely non-functional species of many proteins, whose soluble versions participate in cellular pathways that play fundamental roles in preserving basic functions, such as protein quality control, synapsis, and metabolism. Our findings reveal a putative role for protein misfolding and aggregation in aging.


basmwklz OP t1_j95qa3x wrote

Abstract: >Pharmacological vitamin C (VC) is a potential natural compound for cancer treatment. However, the mechanism underlying its antitumor effects remains unclear. In this study, we found that pharmacological VC significantly inhibits the mTOR (including mTORC1 and mTORC2) pathway activation and promotes GSK3-FBXW7-mediated Rictor ubiquitination and degradation by increasing the cellular ROS. Moreover, we identified that HMOX1 is a checkpoint for pharmacological-VC-mediated mTOR inactivation, and the deletion of FBXW7 or HMOX1 suppresses the regulation of pharmacological VC on mTOR activation, cell size, cell viability, and autophagy. More importantly, it was observed that the inhibition of mTOR by pharmacological VC supplementation in vivo produces positive therapeutic responses in tumor growth, while HMOX1 deficiency rescues the inhibitory effect of pharmacological VC on tumor growth. These results demonstrate that VC influences cellular activities and tumor growth by inhibiting the mTOR pathway through Rictor and HMOX1, which may have therapeutic potential for cancer treatment.


basmwklz OP t1_j94lfbj wrote

Introduction: The discovery of immune checkpoints and the development of their specific inhibitors was acclaimed as a major breakthrough in cancer therapy. However, only a limited patient cohort shows sufficient response to therapy. Hence, there is a need for identifying new checkpoints and predictive biomarkers with the objective of overcoming immune escape and resistance to treatment. Having been associated with both, treatment response and failure, LDL seems to be a double-edged sword in anti-PD1 immunotherapy. Being embedded into complex metabolic conditions, the impact of LDL on distinct immune cells has not been sufficiently addressed. Revealing the effects of LDL on T cell performance in tumor immunity may enable individual treatment adjustments in order to enhance the response to routinely administered immunotherapies in different patient populations. The object of this work was to investigate the effect of LDL on T cell activation and tumor immunity in-vitro.

Methods: Experiments were performed with different LDL dosages (LDLlow = 50 μg/ml and LDLhigh = 200 μg/ml) referring to medium control. T cell phenotype, cytokines and metabolism were analyzed. The functional relevance of our findings was studied in a HCT116 spheroid model in the context of anti-PD-1 blockade.

Results: The key points of our findings showed that LDLhigh skewed the CD4+ T cell subset into a central memory-like phenotype, enhanced the expression of the co-stimulatory marker CD154 (CD40L) and significantly reduced secretion of IL-10. The exhaustion markers PD-1 and LAG-3 were downregulated on both T cell subsets and phenotypical changes were associated with a balanced T cell metabolism, in particular with a significant decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS). T cell transfer into a HCT116 spheroid model resulted in a significant reduction of the spheroid viability in presence of an anti-PD-1 antibody combined with LDLhigh.

Discussion: Further research needs to be conducted to fully understand the impact of LDL on T cells in tumor immunity and moreover, to also unravel LDL effects on other lymphocytes and myeloid cells for improving anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. The reason for improved response might be a resilient, less exhausted phenotype with balanced ROS levels.


basmwklz OP t1_j87oao6 wrote

Abstract: >This study aims to investigate how metformin (Met) affects muscle tissue by evaluating the drug effects on proliferating, differentiating, and differentiated C2C12 cells. Moreover, we also investigated the role of 5’-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the mechanism of action of Met. C2C12 myoblasts were cultured in growth medium with or without Met (250μM, 1mM and 10mM) for different times. Cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay, while cell toxicity was assessed by Trypan Blue exclusion test and Lactate Dehydrogenase release. Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting analysis was performed to study cell cycle. Differentiating myoblasts were incubated in differentiation medium (DM) with or without 10mM Met. For experiments on myotubes, C2C12 were induced to differentiate in DM, and then treated with Met at scalar concentrations and for different times. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the expression of proteins involved in myoblast differentiation, muscle function and metabolism. In differentiating C2C12, Met inhibited cell differentiation, arrested cell cycle progression in G2/M phase and reduced the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1. These effects were accompanied by activation of AMPK and modulation of the myogenic regulatory factors. Comparable results were obtained in myotubes. The use of Compound C, a specific inhibitor of AMPK, counteracted the above-mentioned Met effects. We reported that Met inhibits C2C12 differentiation probably by blocking cell-cycle progression and preventing cells permanent exit from cell-cycle. Moreover, our study provides solid evidence that most of the effects of Met on myoblasts and myotubes are mediated by AMPK.


basmwklz OP t1_j87o2qj wrote



In addition to its contractile properties and role in movement, skeletal muscle plays an important function in regulating whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism. A central component of such regulation is mitochondria, whose quality and function are essential in maintaining proper metabolic homeostasis, with defects in processes such as autophagy and mitophagy involved in mitochondria quality control impairing skeletal muscle mass and function, and potentially leading to a number of associated diseases. Cold exposure has been reported to markedly induce metabolic remodeling and enhance insulin sensitivity in the whole body by regulating mitochondrial biogenesis. However, changes in lipid metabolism and lipidomic profiles in skeletal muscle in response to cold exposure are unclear. Here, we generated lipidomic or transcriptome profiles of mouse skeletal muscle following cold induction, to dissect the molecular mechanisms regulating lipid metabolism upon acute cold treatment.


Our results indicated that short-term cold exposure (3 days) can lead to a significant increase in intramuscular fat deposition. Lipidomic analyses revealed that a cold challenge altered the overall lipid composition by increasing the content of triglyceride (TG), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), while decreasing sphingomyelin (SM), validating lipid remodeling during the cold environment. In addition, RNA-seq and qPCR analysis showed that cold exposure promoted the expression of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid biosynthesis. These marked changes in metabolic effects were associated with mitophagy and muscle signaling pathways, which were accompanied by increased TG deposition and impaired fatty acid oxidation. Mechanistically, HIF-1α signaling was highly activated in response to the cold challenge, which may contribute to intramuscular fat deposition and enhanced mitophagy in a cold environment.


Overall, our data revealed the adaptive changes of skeletal muscle associated with lipidomic and transcriptomic profiles upon cold exposure. We described the significant alterations in the composition of specific lipid species and expression of genes involved in glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Cold-mediated mitophagy may play a critical role in modulating lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle, which is precisely regulated by HIF-1α signaling.


basmwklz OP t1_j7vvbza wrote

Abstract: >The geroscience hypothesis proposes that therapy to slow or reverse molecular changes that occur with aging can delay or prevent multiple chronic diseases and extend healthy lifespan1,2,3. Caloric restriction (CR), defined as lessening caloric intake without depriving essential nutrients4, results in changes in molecular processes that have been associated with aging, including DNA methylation (DNAm)5,6,7, and is established to increase healthy lifespan in multiple species8,9. Here we report the results of a post hoc analysis of the influence of CR on DNAm measures of aging in blood samples from the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE) trial, a randomized controlled trial in which n = 220 adults without obesity were randomized to 25% CR or ad libitum control diet for 2 yr (ref. 10). We found that CALERIE intervention slowed the pace of aging, as measured by the DunedinPACE DNAm algorithm, but did not lead to significant changes in biological age estimates measured by various DNAm clocks including PhenoAge and GrimAge. Treatment effect sizes were small. Nevertheless, modest slowing of the pace of aging can have profound effects on population health11,12,13. The finding that CR modified DunedinPACE in a randomized controlled trial supports the geroscience hypothesis, building on evidence from small and uncontrolled studies14,15,16 and contrasting with reports that biological aging may not be modifiable17. Ultimately, a conclusive test of the geroscience hypothesis will require trials with long-term follow-up to establish effects of intervention on primary healthy-aging endpoints, including incidence of chronic disease and mortality18,19,20.


basmwklz OP t1_j7a7om4 wrote

Abstract: >Flavin containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are promiscuous enzymes known for metabolizing a wide range of exogenous compounds. In C. elegans, fmo-2 expression increases lifespan and healthspan downstream of multiple longevity-promoting pathways through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that, beyond its classification as a xenobiotic enzyme, fmo-2 expression leads to rewiring of endogenous metabolism principally through changes in one carbon metabolism (OCM). These changes are likely relevant, as we find that genetically modifying OCM enzyme expression leads to alterations in longevity that interact with fmo-2 expression. Using computer modeling, we identify decreased methylation as the major OCM flux modified by FMO-2 that is sufficient to recapitulate its longevity benefits. We further find that tryptophan is decreased in multiple mammalian FMO overexpression models and is a validated substrate for FMO-2. Our resulting model connects a single enzyme to two previously unconnected key metabolic pathways and provides a framework for the metabolic interconnectivity of longevity-promoting pathways such as dietary restriction. FMOs are well-conserved enzymes that are also induced by lifespan-extending interventions in mice, supporting a conserved and important role in promoting health and longevity through metabolic remodeling.


basmwklz OP t1_j6qziw7 wrote

Abstract: >Years of use of the antidiabetic drug metformin has long been associated with the risk of vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Accumulating evidence has shown that metformin may exert beneficial effects by altering the metabolism of the gut microbiota, but whether it induces human B12 deficiency via modulation of bacterial activity remains poorly understood. Here, we show that both metformin and the other biguanide drug phenformin markedly elevate the accumulation of B12 in E. coli. By functional and genomic analysis, we demonstrate that both biguanides can significantly increase the expression of B12 transporter genes, and depletions of vital ones, such as tonB, nearly completely abolish the drugs’ effect on bacterial B12 accumulation. Via high-throughput screens in E. coli and C. elegans, we reveal that the TetR-type transcription factor RcdA is required for biguanide-mediated promotion of B12 accumulation and the expressions of B12 transporter genes in bacteria. Together, our study unveils that the antidiabetic drug metformin helps bacteria gather B12 from the environment by increasing the expressions of B12 transporter genes in an RcdA-dependent manner, which may theoretically reduce the B12 supply to T2D patients taking the drug over time.


basmwklz OP t1_j5eij4q wrote

Abstract: >Metabolism is intimately linked to aging. There is a growing number of studies showing that endogenous metabolites may delay aging and improve healthspan. Through the analysis of existing transcriptome data, we discover a link between activation of the transsulfuration pathway and a transcriptional program involved in peroxisome function and biogenesis in long-lived glp-1(e2141ts) mutant Caenorhabditis elegans worms. Subsequently, we show that supplementation with α-ketobutyrate, an intermediate of the transsulfuration pathway, extends lifespan in wild-type worms. Alpha-ketobutyrate augments the production of NAD+ via the lactate dehydrogenase LDH-1, leading to SIR-2.1/SIRT1-mediated enhanced peroxisome function and biogenesis, along with a concomitant increase in the expression of acox-1.2/ACOX1 in the peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. ACOX-1.2/ACOX1 promotes H2O2 formation, thereby resulting in activation of SKN-1/NRF2. This transcription factor in turn extends the lifespan of worms by driving expression of autophagic and lysosomal genes. Finally, we show that α-ketobutyrate also delays the cellular senescence in fibroblast cells through the SIRT1-ACOX1-H2O2-NRF2 pathway. This finding uncovers a previously unknown role for α-ketobutyrate in organismal lifespan and healthspan by coordinating the NAD+-SIRT1 signaling and peroxisomal function.


basmwklz OP t1_j3kjaui wrote

Abstract: >Ketone bodies have beneficial metabolic activities, and the induction of plasma ketone bodies is a health promotion strategy. Dietary supplementation of sodium butyrate (SB) is an effective approach in the induction of plasma ketone bodies. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are unknown. In this study, SB was found to enhance the catalytic activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2), a rate-limiting enzyme in ketogenesis, to promote ketone body production in hepatocytes. SB administrated by gavage or intraperitoneal injection significantly induced blood ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in mice. BHB production was induced in the primary hepatocytes by SB. Protein succinylation was altered by SB in the liver tissues with down-regulation in 58 proteins and up-regulation in 26 proteins in the proteomics analysis. However, the alteration was mostly observed in mitochondrial proteins with 41% down- and 65% up-regulation, respectively. Succinylation status of HMGCS2 protein was altered by a reduction at two sites (K221 and K358) without a change in the protein level. The SB effect was significantly reduced by a SIRT5 inhibitor and in Sirt5-KO mice. The data suggests that SB activated HMGCS2 through SIRT5-mediated desuccinylation for ketone body production by the liver. The effect was not associated with an elevation in NAD+/NADH ratio according to our metabolomics analysis. The data provide a novel molecular mechanism for SB activity in the induction of ketone body production.


basmwklz OP t1_j3kixdx wrote

Abstract: >Little is known about the impact of metabolic stimuli on brain tissue at a molecular level. The ketone body beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) can be a signaling molecule regulating gene transcription. Thus, we assessed lysine beta-hydroxybutyrylation (K-bhb) levels in proteins extracted from the cerebral cortex of mice undergoing a ketogenic metabolic challenge (48 h fasting). We found that fasting enhanced K-bhb in a variety of proteins including histone H3. ChIP-seq experiments showed that K9 beta-hydroxybutyrylation of H3 (H3K9-bhb) was significantly enriched by fasting on more than 8000 DNA loci. Transcriptomic analysis showed that H3K9-bhb on enhancers and promoters correlated with active gene expression. One of the most enriched functional annotations both at the epigenetic and transcriptional level was “circadian rhythms''. Indeed, we found that the diurnal oscillation of specific transcripts was modulated by fasting at distinct zeitgeber times both in the cortex and suprachiasmatic nucleus. Moreover, specific changes in locomotor activity daily features were observed during re-feeding after 48-h fasting. Thus, our results suggest that fasting remarkably impinges on the cerebral cortex transcriptional and epigenetic landscape, and BHB acts as a powerful epigenetic molecule in the brain through direct and specific histone marks remodeling in neural tissue cells.


basmwklz OP t1_j2ll0v1 wrote

Abstract: >Elevated body mass index (BMI) is heritable and associated with many health conditions that impact morbidity and mortality. The study of the genetic association of BMI across a broad range of common disease conditions offers the opportunity to extend current knowledge regarding the breadth and depth of adiposity-related diseases. We identify 906 (364 novel) and 41 (6 novel) genome-wide significant loci for BMI among participants of European (N~1.1 million) and African (N~100,000) ancestry, respectively. Using a BMI genetic risk score including 2446 variants, 316 diagnoses are associated in the Million Veteran Program, with 96.5% showing increased risk. A co-morbidity network analysis reveals seven disease communities containing multiple interconnected diseases associated with BMI as well as extensive connections across communities. Mendelian randomization analysis confirms numerous phenotypes across a breadth of organ systems, including conditions of the circulatory (heart failure, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation), genitourinary (chronic renal failure), respiratory (respiratory failure, asthma), musculoskeletal and dermatologic systems that are deeply interconnected within and across the disease communities. This work shows that the complex genetic architecture of BMI associates with a broad range of major health conditions, supporting the need for comprehensive approaches to prevent and treat obesity.


basmwklz OP t1_ix2s16y wrote

Abstract: >Food cues during fasting elicit Pavlovian conditioning to adapt for anticipated food intake. However, whether the olfactory system is involved in metabolic adaptations remains elusive. Here we show that food-odor perception promotes lipid metabolism in male mice. During fasting, food-odor stimulation is sufficient to increase serum free fatty acids via adipose tissue lipolysis in an olfactory-memory-dependent manner, which is mediated by the central melanocortin and sympathetic nervous systems. Additionally, stimulation with a food odor prior to refeeding leads to enhanced whole-body lipid utilization, which is associated with increased sensitivity of the central agouti-related peptide system, reduced sympathetic activity and peripheral tissue-specific metabolic alterations, such as an increase in gastrointestinal lipid absorption and hepatic cholesterol turnover. Finally, we show that intermittent fasting coupled with food-odor stimulation improves glycemic control and prevents insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice. Thus, olfactory regulation is required for maintaining metabolic homeostasis in environments with either an energy deficit or energy surplus, which could be considered as part of dietary interventions against metabolic disorders.


basmwklz OP t1_ix2ls51 wrote



The application of cold exposure has emerged as an approach to enhance whole-body lipid catabolism. The global effect of cold exposure on the lipidome in humans has been reported with mixed results depending on intensity and duration of cold.


This secondary study was based on data from a previous randomized cross-over trial ( ID: NCT03012113). We performed sequential lipidomic profiling in serum during 120 min cold exposure of human volunteers. Next, the intracellular lipolysis was blocked in mice (eighteen 10-week-old male wild-type mice C57BL/6J) using a small-molecule inhibitor of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL; Atglistatin), and mice were exposed to cold for a similar duration. The quantitative lipidomic profiling was assessed in-depth using the Lipidyzer platform.


In humans, cold exposure gradually increased circulating free fatty acids reaching a maximum at 60 min, and transiently decreased total triacylglycerols (TAGs) only at 30 min. A broad range of TAG species was initially decreased, in particular unsaturated and polyunsaturated TAG species with ≤5 double bonds, while after 120 min a significant increase was observed for polyunsaturated TAG species with ≥6 double bonds in humans. The mechanistic study in mice revealed that the cold-induced increase in polyunsaturated TAGs was largely prevented by blocking adipose triglyceride lipase.


We interpret these findings as that cold exposure feeds thermogenic tissues with TAG-derived fatty acids for combustion, resulting in a decrease of circulating TAG species, followed by increased hepatic production of polyunsaturated TAG species induced by liberation of free fatty acids stemming from adipose tissue.


basmwklz OP t1_iw6aqnq wrote

Abstract: >Background: Typical vivarium temperatures (20-26°C) induce facultative thermogenesis in mice, a process attributable in part to uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1). The impact of modest changes in housing temperature on whole body and adipose tissue energetics in mice remains unclear. Here, we determined the effects of transitioning mice from 24°C to 30°C on total energy expenditure and adipose tissue protein signatures. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were housed at 24°C for two weeks and then either remained at 24°C (n=16 per group, 8M/8F) or were transitioned to 30°C (n=16 per group, 8M/8F) for 4 weeks. Total energy expenditure and its components were determined by indirect calorimetry. Interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) proteins were quantified by western blot and quantitative proteomics. Results: Transitioning from 24°C to 30°C reduced total energy expenditure in both male (-25%) and female (-16%) mice, which was attributable to 36% and 40% decreases in basal energy expenditure in males and females, respectively. Total iBAT UCP1 protein content was 50% lower at 30°C compared to 24°C, whereas iWAT UCP1 protein content was similar between conditions. iBAT UCP1 protein content remained 20-fold greater than iWAT at 30°C. 183 and 41 proteins were differentially expressed between 24°C and 30°C in iBAT and iWAT, respectively. 257 iWAT proteins differentially expressed between sexes at 30°C were not differentially expressed at 24°C. Summary: 30°C housing lowers total energy expenditure of mice when compared to an ambient temperature (24°C) that falls within the National Research Council's guidelines for housing laboratory mice. Lower iBAT UCP1 content accompanied chronic housing at 30°C. Further, housing temperature influences sexual dimorphism in the iWAT proteome. These data have implications regarding the optimization of preclinical models of human disease.


basmwklz OP t1_iw69yjy wrote

Abstract: >Animals must adapt their dietary choices to meet their nutritional needs. How these needs are detected and translated into nutrient-specific appetites that drive food-choice behaviours is poorly understood. Here we show that enteroendocrine cells of the adult female Drosophila midgut sense nutrients and in response release neuropeptide F (NPF), which is an ortholog of mammalian neuropeptide Y-family gut-brain hormones. Gut-derived NPF acts on glucagon-like adipokinetic hormone (AKH) signalling to induce sugar satiety and increase consumption of protein-rich food, and on adipose tissue to promote storage of ingested nutrients. Suppression of NPF-mediated gut signalling leads to overconsumption of dietary sugar while simultaneously decreasing intake of protein-rich yeast. Furthermore, gut-derived NPF has a female-specific function in promoting consumption of protein-containing food in mated females. Together, our findings suggest that gut NPF-to-AKH signalling modulates specific appetites and regulates food choice to ensure homeostatic consumption of nutrients, providing insight into the hormonal mechanisms that underlie nutrient-specific hungers.


basmwklz OP t1_ivadwry wrote

Abstract: >Chronic calorie restriction (CR) results in lengthened lifespan and reduced disease risk. Many previous studies have implemented 30–40% calorie restriction to investigate these benefits. The goal of our study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction, beginning at 4 months of age, on metabolic and physical changes induced by aging. Male C57BL/6NCrl calorie restricted and ad libitum fed control mice were obtained from the National Institute on Aging (NIA) and studied at 10, 18, 26, and 28 months of age to better understand the metabolic changes that occur in response to CR in middle age and advanced age. Food intake was measured in ad libitum fed controls to assess the true degree of CR (15%) in these mice. We found that 15% CR decreased body mass and liver triglyceride content, improved oral glucose clearance, and increased all limb grip strength in 10- and 18-month-old mice. Glucose clearance in ad libitum fed 26- and 28-month-old mice is enhanced relative to younger mice but was not further improved by CR. CR decreased basal insulin concentrations in all age groups and improved insulin sensitivity and rotarod time to fall in 28-month-old mice. The results of our study demonstrate that even a modest reduction (15%) in caloric intake may improve metabolic and physical health. Thus, moderate calorie restriction may be a dietary intervention to promote healthy aging with improved likelihood for adherence in human populations.


basmwklz OP t1_isiyk8i wrote

Abstract: >Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) (previously known as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)) is a disease with high worldwide prevalence, but with limited available therapeutic interventions. Autophagy is a cell survival mechanism for clearing excess lipids in hepatocytes and affects the occurrence and development of MAFLD. In addition, some studies have shown that magnesium deficiency is common in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Magnesium supplementation can effectively improve metabolism-related diseases such as obesity and fatty liver. Our study successfully constructed a cellular model of MAFLD by 1 mM free fatty acid (FFA) intervention in LO2 cells for 24 h, and there was an increase in lipid accumulation in hepatocytes after FFA intervention. Magnesium supplementation was shown to reduce lipid deposition in hepatocytes induced by FFA, and Western blotting (WB) analysis showed that magnesium supplementation could downregulate the expression of Fasn and SREBP1 and increase the expression of LPL, suggesting that magnesium can reduce lipid accumulation by reducing lipid synthesis and increasing lipid oxidation. Magnesium supplementation could affect cellular lipid metabolism by activating the AMPK/mTOR pathway to stimulate autophagy. Our results identified a relationship between magnesium and lipid accumulation in hepatocytes and showed that magnesium supplementation reduced lipid deposition in hepatocytes by activating autophagy by activating the AMPK-mTOR pathway.


basmwklz OP t1_irlvyus wrote



A striking effect of old age is the involuntary loss of muscle mass and strength leading to sarcopenia and reduced physiological functions. However, effects of heavy-load exercise in older adults on diseases and functions as predicted by changes in muscle gene expression have been inadequately studied.


Thigh muscle global transcriptional activity (transcriptome) was analyzed in cohorts of older and younger adults before and after 12–13 weeks heavy-load strength exercise using Affymetrix microarrays. Three age groups, similarly trained, were compared: younger adults (age 24 ± 4 years), older adults of average age 70 years (Oslo cohort) and above 80 years (old BSU cohort). To increase statistical strength, one of the older cohorts was used for validation. Ingenuity Pathway analysis (IPA) was used to identify predicted biological effects of a gene set that changed expression after exercise, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to visualize differences in muscle gene expressen between cohorts and individual participants as well as overall changes upon exercise.


Younger adults, showed few transcriptome changes, but a marked, significant impact was observed in persons of average age 70 years and even more so in persons above 80 years. The 249 transcripts positively or negatively altered in both cohorts of older adults (q-value < 0.1) were submitted to gene set enrichment analysis using IPA. The transcripts predicted increase in several aspects of “vascularization and muscle contractions”, whereas functions associated with negative health effects were reduced, e.g., “Glucose metabolism disorder” and “Disorder of blood pressure”. Several genes that changed expression after intervention were confirmed at the genome level by containing single nucleotide variants associated with handgrip strength and muscle expression levels, e.g., CYP4B1 (p = 9.2E-20), NOTCH4 (p = 9.7E-8), and FZD4 (p = 5.3E-7). PCA of the 249 genes indicated a differential pattern of muscle gene expression in young and elderly. However, after exercise the expression patterns in both young and old BSU cohorts were changed in the same direction for the vast majority of participants.


The positive impact of heavy-load strength training on the transcriptome increased markedly with age. The identified molecular changes translate to improved vascularization and muscular strength, suggesting highly beneficial health effects for older adults.


basmwklz OP t1_irlu5th wrote

Abstract: >Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contributes to cardiometabolic health by taking up glucose and lipids for oxidation, a process that displays a strong diurnal rhythm. While aging has been shown to reduce thermogenic characteristics of BAT, it is as yet unknown whether this reduction is specific to the time of day. Therefore, we assessed whole-body and BAT energy metabolism in young and middle-aged male and female C57BL/6J mice and studied the consequences for lipid metabolism in humanized APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice (also on a C57BL/6J background). We demonstrate that in middle-aged versus young mice body temperature is lower in both male and female mice, while uptake of triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acids (FAs) by BAT, reflecting metabolic activity, is attenuated at its peak at the onset of the dark (wakeful) phase in female mice. This coincided with delayed plasma clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins and TG-depleted lipoprotein core remnants, and elevated plasma TGs at the same time point. Furthermore, middle-aged female mice showed increased adiposity, accompanied by lipid accumulation, increased expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and reduced expression of genes involved in fat oxidation and the intracellular clock machinery in BAT. Peak abundance of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), a crucial regulator of FA uptake, was attenuated in BAT. Our findings suggest that LPL is a potential therapeutic target for restoring diurnal metabolic BAT activity, and that efficiency of strategies targeting BAT may be improved by including time of day as an important factor.