die_kuestenwache t1_jb8p8il wrote

These are called tetrapods, descendants of the lobe finned fish. We all share this body plan because afawk fish only made the change to fully terrestrial life once, and all living exclusive lung breathers are descendants of the species that did. Fun fact, this means that technically, whales actually are fish after all.


die_kuestenwache t1_j9sktov wrote

Well, you can test in a lab if masks worn properly or a good approximation of that filter out aerosols or dust and to what degree. As for "as worn in real life" is something you can also not control for in a double blind study. These studies have to exclude confounding variables as well as possible, too. You will have to do population studies, I don't see a way around that.


die_kuestenwache t1_j9dyjnb wrote

Basically it has formed in such a way as to correctly associate the impulses it receives with the triggers. And yes there are individual stands of nerves that take certain paths. It doesn't always work. Pain that should be associated with some organs ends up feeling like it comes from somewhere else. There is phantom pain from lost limbs. You can even reprogram it to some degree. People can control and sometimes "feel" prosthetics via their chest muscles for instance.


die_kuestenwache t1_j4ucsz6 wrote

Afaik, no. Your immune system develops antibodies that are more or less pathogenspecific. Since you are not interested in vaccination, which would be the effect for the pathogen you are using, this would not make your immune system better at fighting other pathogens. But you would likely develop scarring, and eventually, the regions of the skin you are treating may develop rashes and heal less effectively.

You can not generally train your immune system in this way. Getting the flue does not lower your chance of contracting malaria. Any stress, healing wounds and fighting diseases included, weakens your immune response.

If there is other information out there I'd be interested to know as well.


die_kuestenwache t1_j45t9md wrote

The more you tighten a screw, the more "force" it takes to tighten it further. Since tightening a screw is a rotational movement, what you're interested in is torque, not force. If you tighten it to a specific torque, this means you stop tightening once the torque necessary to tighten it further would exceed your limit. Reasons to only tighten to a certain torque might be that further tightening could deform whatever you are fixing with the screw or it might snap the head if you go too far beyond.


die_kuestenwache t1_j36z7gg wrote

There is a mechanism called genetic imprinting in higher mammals, which is thought to make the genesis of a fully functional organism without both a full set male and female genes highly unlikely to succeed. It is a topic of ongoing research, whether it is still possible to induce parthogenesis in a lab. It has never been observed in mammals in nature.

[Edit] this took me like 5 minutes to google. But I thought it was so interesting that I summarized it as a thank you for making me learn something today.


die_kuestenwache t1_j2t0rp6 wrote

In principle, yes. Infinite rigidity would mean infinite speed of sound. As soon as the velocity of any part of the rod approaches the speed of light, the torque necessry to further accelerate the rod would go towards infinity. However, as others have pointed out, infinite rigidity violates relativity as the speed of sound itself cannot exceed the speed of light.


die_kuestenwache t1_j1fcj32 wrote

Heart attacks, for instance, show different symptoms in people with XX genotype compared to XY genotype. In principle, if a transman presented with nausea and lightheadedness, the symptoms could be misinterpreted and they may not get the emergency measures required. However, this smells an awful lot like a terfy smoke screen to me.


die_kuestenwache t1_j1ca1bc wrote

From a breathing point of view, yes, we would be fine. The whole "we need to also breathe through our skin or else we die" thing is bunk. However a lot of atmospheres might be otherwise toxic and cause problems to our skin or mucus membranes without a hazmat-suit. It wouldn't have to be pressurized though.