dumnezero t1_jebbtgn wrote

Height isn't necessarily an advantage, height is correlated with a bunch of health problems related to circulation and nerves. There are also associations with diseases, here's a fun article: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature.2012.10517


dumnezero t1_jdvjc7d wrote

Very meta.

>A new study examined comments given on the Reddit forum “r/science” to discover how commenters express negative attitudes towards science. Results showed that these views are most often expressed by describing scientists as corruptible, poor communicators, and misleading. Commenters particularly negatively evaluated social sciences, especially psychology, calling it pseudoscientific. The study was published in the Public Understanding of Science.


Batchelor, Jordan. "Just another clickbait title: A corpus-driven investigation of negative attitudes toward science on Reddit." Public Underst. Sci., 12 Jan. 2023, p. 09636625221146453, doi:10.1177/09636625221146453.

>The public understanding of science has produced a large body of research about general attitudes toward science. However, most studies of science attitudes have been carried out via surveys or in experimental conditions, and few make use of the growing contexts of online science communication to investigate attitudes without researcher intervention. This study adopted corpus-based discourse analysis to investigate the negative attitudes held toward science by users of the social media website Reddit, specifically the forum r/science.

>A large corpus of comments made to r/science was collected and mined for keywords. Analysis of keywords identified several sources of negative attitudes, such as claims that scientists can be corruptible, poor communicators, and misleading. Research methodologies were negatively evaluated on the basis of small sample sizes. Other commenters negatively evaluated social science research, especially psychology, as being pseudoscientific, and several commenters described science journalism as untrustworthy or sensationalized.

And the mods should've removed all of those. Press that Nuke button, mods.


dumnezero t1_jd2djjw wrote

>Mortality risk increased for mountain lions closer to rural development and decreased in areas with higher proportions of citizens voting to support environmental initiatives. Thus, the presence of human infrastructure and variation in the mindset of humans sharing landscapes with mountain lions appear to be primary drivers of risk.


dumnezero t1_jd28t3p wrote

Captive breeding is also horrible and the increased demand just means the wild caught animals will have to be "laundered" through the supply chain.

Do not make excuses for them, the exotic trade for animals and plants is terrible for the planet.


dumnezero t1_j92my6e wrote

Alpine meadows, natural ones, grow in places where it's hostile for trees. There are multiple stressors that are correlated with altitude.

Here's an intro article: https://www.encyclopedie-environnement.org/en/life/how-do-plants-cope-with-alpine-stress/

If you're thinking of semi-natural (man made) grasslands in mountainous areas, then, yes, the succession to trees is natural.

Mountains are hotspots of biodiversity. But the climate warming effect is known already: as the climate is warming, species are moving up the mountain, and it's not just plants. The mountain gets narrower towards the top, which leads to more crowding, and the species at the top already have nowhere to go.


dumnezero t1_j8wvq3v wrote

> PISA test scores and levels of student competition are consistently negative, and levels of student co-operation enter positively. It is interesting to note how, at the macro level, we find that average academic performance is negatively related to students’ SWB, while earlier studies focusing on the link between individual performance and individual life satisfaction usually report a positive link (see Bücker et al., 2018, for a meta study). Note that this is not a contradiction. At the individual level, a student can improve her SWB by performing better in school than her peers. However, at the macro level, overall academic performance and competition within schools increase learning intensity and school-related stress for each student, reducing SWB for the group as a whole. We therefore argue that the intensity of education—which increases with the level of economic development—is very likely to be the mechanism behind our findings.

All work and no play...?


dumnezero t1_j8wjlfu wrote

From the paper:

>Also referred to as the neutrophil chemotactic factor, IL-8 recruit’s neutrophils and NK-cells to sites of inflammation where they can clear infected cells and promote wound healing.

>It is possible that the apparent lack of IL-8 in long-COVID patients may be responsible for at least some of the debilitating symptoms including post-exertional malaise, fatigue, and persistent cough, shortness of breath and chest pain.

>In this scenario, the acute SARS-CoV-2 infection damages the lungs, the cytokine milieu unfolds as described above, recruiting cells to the site of damage where the cells can either (a) help control the infection and induce a wound healing environment and the individual recovers normally; or (b) the infection causes abundant cellular infiltration leading to a high concentration of immune cells in a relatively small physical space, ultimately causing more tissue damage, which is not efficiently repaired in the absence of IL-8.

>Predictably, under scenario ‘b’ the individual remains having difficulty with oxygen transfer from the lungs into the blood stream. Therefore, if the macrophages and other cells that secrete IL-8 become exhausted or are otherwise incapable of secreting IL-8, neutrophils will not be recruited to assist in the wound healing process in the lung once the infection has been cleared [63]. Scenario ‘b’ therefore emerges as a potential model to explain certain long-COVID complications based on lack of IL-8.

>IFNγ is secreted by the innate immune Natural Killer cells (NK) and Natural Killer T cells (NKT) as well as the adaptive immune CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) after the development of antigen-specific immunity [64]. Together with IL-12, IFNγhelps drive the differentiation of Th1 cells, which in turn can secrete IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ [65]. The observed lack of circulating IFNγ (Figure 1 and Table 2) in the plasma of patients suggests either severe immune dysfunction or exhaustion.

The war in the lungs is over, but there are too many soldiers still there, hanging out, causing drama. What's not happening: they need to be transported away and the engineering+construction crews need to come in to start rebuilding.


dumnezero t1_j8wigeu wrote

The important part is:

>Based on our results we propose that immune exhaustion perpetuates long-COVID due to the seemingly complete reduction of IFNγ and IL-8, as well as significant decreases in IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13, and IL-17. Identifying these and other deficiencies will provide clues towards methods to intervene and possibly restore immune function in the context long-COVID. Although functional assays that test the ability of immune cells from individuals with long-COVID to respond to pathogenic stimuli will be required to support this theory.