someone76543 t1_ja994wd wrote

Reply to comment by astajaznan in Eli5 credit score please. by astajaznan

The UK doesn't have a central credit score.

There are central "Credit Reference" companies that record your credit history. Your bank reports that information to them.

The banks can then get that information and use it to calculate their own credit score for you. Each bank probably uses a slightly different scoring system.

Generally the credit reference companies will report:

  • What loans and credit cards you have
  • how much you owe on each account
  • For each account, each month, whether you paid on time, how late you paid, or if you didn't pay at all. For the last 2 years.
  • If you have a joint account with someone then they will report their finances too. Since if they get into financial difficulty that will probably affect your ability to repay too.
  • If you are taken to court for non-payment, or declare bankruptcy, that will be reported for many years (maybe 7 years? Never applied to me so I'm not sure the exact duration)

You can get a copy of your own credit report for a nominal fee. (£2, about $2).


someone76543 t1_ja88ipg wrote

The odds probably went up slightly. Contaminated fuel, or bad weather, or technical problems with the ground systems, or terrorism, could cause multiple plane crashes. (Though I don't think that has ever happened accidentally... yet. Coordinated terrorist attacks have happened, such as 9/11).

Edit to add: There is also the risk of a design flaw on the aircraft. E.g. 737 Max. Or a consistent manufacturing flaw.


someone76543 t1_j6dav2s wrote

The ICE does power all the electronics.

All car engines have a generator ("alternator") attached, which generates the electricity that the car needs. Taking power from that generator puts a drag on the engine's shaft, requiring more fuel to be burnt to keep the car going at the same speed. There is no such thing as free energy, it has to come from somewhere.

There is also a rechargeable battery in the car, used when the engine is off. That battery is recharged from the generator when the engine is running. So any power taken from that battery, requires more power from the ICE to recharge the battery. Again, no free energy.

Air conditioning usually connects the AC compressor directly to the engine shaft (via belts). Again, when it is running that puts a drag on the engine's shaft, requiring more fuel to be burnt to keep the car going at the same speed. (The AC needs a lot of power, so this design avoids the inefficiencies of having the generator drive a big electric motor to drive the compressor. It also avoids the weight and space for a big electric motor).


someone76543 t1_j1xdzoh wrote

Pantone is used for communication between different people. If you're not communicating with someone else, then you do you and use whatever colours you like.

Usually it is for communication between a designer and a manufacturer. The designer chooses a Pantone colour, and the manufacturer makes the thing be exactly that Pantone colour.

The designer and manufacturer are usually different companies, often in different countries.

So if you are a manufacturer, you DO have to keep paying for Pantone because that is what most of your customers will be using. And if you stop accepting designs that use Pantone colours, or if you just get the Pantone colours wrong, then the customers will go to a different manufacturer.

If you are a designer, you DO have to keep paying for Pantone because that is what most of your manufacturers will be using. Unless you have the luxury of only selecting manufacturers that support <alternate colour system>, but in that case either:

  1. you're a huge company, that can dictate standards to their supplier. Huge companies will have a huge existing library of designs, and the cost of switching will likely dwarf the cost of Pantone. OR
  2. you're a tiny hobbyist or small business. Hobbyists & small businesses who care enough to use ANY colour system are a niche market. So most manufacturers aren't going to implement a whole separate colour system just for "hobbyists & small businesses who care about exact colours but can't or won't pay for Pantone". Those people don't have much money to spend getting things manufactured - if they had lots of money they could buy Pantone.

The only way you can stop paying for Pantone is AFTER the whole industry starts supporting the new colour system. And for the reasons listed above, that is unlikely to happen.

So any competing colour system is doomed.

It's a classic chicken/egg problem.


someone76543 t1_j1vx1x5 wrote

Having a widely supported standard is important.

Pantone is that standard, they have basically a monopoly on professional colour definitions. Everyone competent who is using colour professionally will understand a Pantone colour. Designers have lots of existing designs using Pantone colours. Manufacturers know how to produce all kinds of plastics, fabrics, paints, or anything else, to whatever Pantone colour you want.

Introducing a new standard would be very hard. All designs would need updating. All manufacturers would have to invest extra money in supporting it. Someone will have to produce the definitive colour samples that define the colours, and designers and manufacturers would have to buy them.

And there is little incentive for anyone to invest that time and money. The designers will still need Pantone to deal with the vast majority of manufacturers. The manufacturers will still need Pantone to deal with the vast majority of designers. It's extra cost for no benefit.


someone76543 t1_ixtw30m wrote

First of all, JFIF is another name for JPEG, so they are the same.

Second, most image file formats have a way to identify the file format by looking at the first bit of the file. All PNGs start with the same 8 bytes. All JPEGs start with the same 3 bytes.

It is quite common for image loading code to automatically detect the type of image file and load it appropriately.

However, you should not assume this applies to other types of file - it usually doesn't.

You should not even assume that all image programs will do it (though most will).